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Metastases of Soft Tissue
Stephanie A. Bernard, MD; Catherine C. Roberts, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Definitions

            • Relatively uncommon cause of soft tissue mass (0.15% cancer patients)

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Imaging Recommendations

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      • Microscopic Features

                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                        • Presentation

                          • Demographics

                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                              • Treatment

                                Selected References

                                1. Harmon CE et al: The path of most resistance: a rare instance of metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma identified within skeletal muscle. Cureus. 13(3):e13947, 2021
                                2. Fares J et al: Molecular principles of metastasis: a hallmark of cancer revisited. Signal Transduct Target Ther. 5(1):28, 2020
                                3. Omokawa N et al: Skeletal muscle metastasis as a first site of recurrence of cervical cancer: a case report and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore). 99(19):e20056, 2020
                                4. Muratori F et al: Myxoid liposarcoma: prognostic factors and metastatic pattern in a series of 148 patients treated at a single institution. Int J Surg Oncol. 2018:8928706, 2018
                                5. Soliman F et al: Infiltrative pattern of carcinomatosis in extremity muscles on MRI. Clin Imaging. 40(3):451-5, 2016
                                6. Surov A et al: Comparison of ADC values in different malignancies of the skeletal musculature: a multicentric analysis. Skeletal Radiol. 44(7):995-1000, 2015
                                7. Subhawong TK et al: Diffusion-weighted MR imaging for characterizing musculoskeletal lesions. Radiographics. 34(5):1163-77, 2014
                                8. Surov A et al: Muscle metastases: comparison of features in different primary tumours. Cancer Imaging. 14:21, 2014
                                9. Chun CW et al: MRI features of skeletal muscle lymphoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 195(6):1355-60, 2010
                                10. Abed R et al: Soft-tissue metastases: their presentation and origin. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 91(8):1083-5, 2009
                                11. Plaza JA et al: Metastases to soft tissue: a review of 118 cases over a 30-year period. Cancer. 112(1):193-203, 2008
                                12. Magee T et al: Skeletal muscle metastases at sites of documented trauma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 178(4):985-8, 2002
                                13. Glockner JF et al: Unsuspected metastases presenting as solitary soft tissue lesions: a fourteen-year review. Skeletal Radiol. 29(5):270-4, 2000
                                14. Yoshioka H et al: Intramuscular metastasis from malignant melanoma: MR findings. Skeletal Radiol. 28(12):714-6, 1999
                                15. Williams JB et al: MR imaging of skeletal muscle metastases. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 168(2):555-7, 1997
                                16. Seely S: Possible reasons for the high resistance of muscle to cancer. Med Hypotheses. 6(2):133-7, 1980
                                Related Anatomy
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                                References
                                Tables

                                Tables

                                KEY FACTS

                                • Terminology

                                  • Imaging

                                    • Pathology

                                      • Clinical Issues

                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                        • Definitions

                                          • Relatively uncommon cause of soft tissue mass (0.15% cancer patients)

                                        IMAGING

                                        • General Features

                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                            • CT Findings

                                              • MR Findings

                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • Microscopic Features

                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                      • Presentation

                                                        • Demographics

                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                            • Treatment

                                                              Selected References

                                                              1. Harmon CE et al: The path of most resistance: a rare instance of metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma identified within skeletal muscle. Cureus. 13(3):e13947, 2021
                                                              2. Fares J et al: Molecular principles of metastasis: a hallmark of cancer revisited. Signal Transduct Target Ther. 5(1):28, 2020
                                                              3. Omokawa N et al: Skeletal muscle metastasis as a first site of recurrence of cervical cancer: a case report and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore). 99(19):e20056, 2020
                                                              4. Muratori F et al: Myxoid liposarcoma: prognostic factors and metastatic pattern in a series of 148 patients treated at a single institution. Int J Surg Oncol. 2018:8928706, 2018
                                                              5. Soliman F et al: Infiltrative pattern of carcinomatosis in extremity muscles on MRI. Clin Imaging. 40(3):451-5, 2016
                                                              6. Surov A et al: Comparison of ADC values in different malignancies of the skeletal musculature: a multicentric analysis. Skeletal Radiol. 44(7):995-1000, 2015
                                                              7. Subhawong TK et al: Diffusion-weighted MR imaging for characterizing musculoskeletal lesions. Radiographics. 34(5):1163-77, 2014
                                                              8. Surov A et al: Muscle metastases: comparison of features in different primary tumours. Cancer Imaging. 14:21, 2014
                                                              9. Chun CW et al: MRI features of skeletal muscle lymphoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 195(6):1355-60, 2010
                                                              10. Abed R et al: Soft-tissue metastases: their presentation and origin. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 91(8):1083-5, 2009
                                                              11. Plaza JA et al: Metastases to soft tissue: a review of 118 cases over a 30-year period. Cancer. 112(1):193-203, 2008
                                                              12. Magee T et al: Skeletal muscle metastases at sites of documented trauma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 178(4):985-8, 2002
                                                              13. Glockner JF et al: Unsuspected metastases presenting as solitary soft tissue lesions: a fourteen-year review. Skeletal Radiol. 29(5):270-4, 2000
                                                              14. Yoshioka H et al: Intramuscular metastasis from malignant melanoma: MR findings. Skeletal Radiol. 28(12):714-6, 1999
                                                              15. Williams JB et al: MR imaging of skeletal muscle metastases. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 168(2):555-7, 1997
                                                              16. Seely S: Possible reasons for the high resistance of muscle to cancer. Med Hypotheses. 6(2):133-7, 1980