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Metastatic Bone Tumors
Pushpender Gupta, MBBS
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    IMAGING

    • General Features

      • Imaging Recommendations

        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

          PATHOLOGY

          • General Features

            CLINICAL ISSUES

            • Presentation

              • Demographics

                • Natural History & Prognosis

                  • Treatment

                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                      Selected References

                      1. Davila D et al: Evaluation of Osseous Metastasis in Bone Scintigraphy. Semin Nucl Med. 45(1):3-15, 2015
                      2. Cheung FH: The practicing orthopedic surgeon's guide to managing long bone metastases. Orthop Clin North Am. 45(1):109-19, 2014
                      3. Eiber M et al: Performance of whole-body integrated 18F-FDG PET/MR in comparison to PET/CT for evaluation of malignant bone lesions. J Nucl Med. 55(2):191-7, 2014
                      4. Mick CG et al: Molecular imaging in oncology: (18)F-sodium fluoride PET imaging of osseous metastatic disease. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 203(2):263-71, 2014
                      5. Iagaru A et al: Pilot prospective evaluation of 99mTc-MDP scintigraphy, 18F NaF PET/CT, 18F FDG PET/CT and whole-body MRI for detection of skeletal metastases. Clin Nucl Med. 38(7):e290-6, 2013
                      6. Ibrahim T et al: Metastatic bone disease in the era of bone-targeted therapy: clinical impact. Tumori. 99(1):1-9, 2013
                      7. Kota G et al: PET/CT illustration of metastatic breast cancer to the left mandibular foramen. Clin Nucl Med. 38(5):385-6, 2013
                      8. Wong KK et al: Dynamic bone imaging with 99mTc-labeled diphosphonates and 18F-NaF: mechanisms and applications. J Nucl Med. 54(4):590-9, 2013
                      9. Hori T et al: Skeletal metastasis of carcinoid tumors: Two case reports and review of the literature. Oncol Lett. 3(5):1105-1108, 2012
                      10. Huang Q et al: Biochemical-markers for the diagnosis of bone metastasis: a clinical review. Cancer Epidemiol. 36(1):94-8, 2012
                      11. Mackiewicz-Wysocka M et al: Progress in the treatment of bone metastases in cancer patients. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 21(6):785-95, 2012
                      12. Qu X et al: A meta-analysis of ¹⁸FDG-PET-CT, ¹⁸FDG-PET, MRI and bone scintigraphy for diagnosis of bone metastases in patients with lung cancer. Eur J Radiol. 81(5):1007-15, 2012
                      13. Thornton E et al: Imaging features of primary and secondary malignant tumours of the sacrum. Br J Radiol. 85(1011):279-86, 2012
                      14. van der Horst G et al: Preclinical imaging of the cellular and molecular events in the multistep process of bone metastasis. Future Oncol. 8(4):415-30, 2012
                      15. Sturge J et al: Bone metastasis in prostate cancer: emerging therapeutic strategies. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2011 Jun;8(6):357-68. Epub 2011 May 10. Review. Erratum in: Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 8(10):568, 2011
                      16. Liu T et al: A meta-analysis of 18FDG-PET, MRI and bone scintigraphy for diagnosis of bone metastases in patients with breast cancer. Skeletal Radiol. 40(5):523-31, 2011
                      17. Tarnawska-Pierścińska M et al: Bone metastases diagnosis possibilities in studies with the use of 18F-NaF and 18F-FDG. Nucl Med Rev Cent East Eur. 14(2):105-8, 2011
                      18. Vassiliou V et al: Bone metastases: assessment of therapeutic response through radiological and nuclear medicine imaging modalities. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 23(9):632-45, 2011
                      19. Yang HL et al: Diagnosis of bone metastases: a meta-analysis comparing ¹⁸FDG PET, CT, MRI and bone scintigraphy. Eur Radiol. 21(12):2604-17, 2011
                      20. Cook GJ: PET and PET/CT imaging of skeletal metastases. Cancer Imaging. 10:1-8, 2010
                      21. Segall G et al: SNM practice guideline for sodium 18F-fluoride PET/CT bone scans 1.0. J Nucl Med. 51(11):1813-20, 2010
                      22. Elgazzar AH et al: Metastatic bone disease: evaluation by functional imaging in correlation with morphologic modalities. Gulf J Oncolog. (5):9-21, 2009
                      23. Alix-Panabières C et al: Circulating tumor cells and bone marrow micrometastasis. Clin Cancer Res. 14(16):5013-21, 2008
                      24. Delbeke D et al: Procedure guideline for tumor imaging with 18F-FDG PET/CT 1.0. J Nucl Med. 47(5):885-95, 2006
                      25. Fujimoto R et al: Diagnostic accuracy of bone metastases detection in cancer patients: comparison between bone scintigraphy and whole-body FDG-PET. Ann Nucl Med. 20(6):399-408, 2006
                      26. Schmidt GP et al: Screening for bone metastases: whole-body MRI using a 32-channel system versus dual-modality PET-CT. Eur Radiol. 2006
                      27. Donohoe KJ et al: Procedure guideline for bone scintigraphy: 1.0. Society of Nuclear Medicine. J Nucl Med. 37(11):1903-6, 1996
                      28. Schneider JA et al: Flare on bone scintigraphy following Taxol chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer. J Nucl Med. 35(11):1748-52, 1994
                      Related Anatomy
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                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                      References
                      Tables

                      Tables

                      KEY FACTS

                      • Imaging

                        IMAGING

                        • General Features

                          • Imaging Recommendations

                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                              PATHOLOGY

                              • General Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Davila D et al: Evaluation of Osseous Metastasis in Bone Scintigraphy. Semin Nucl Med. 45(1):3-15, 2015
                                          2. Cheung FH: The practicing orthopedic surgeon's guide to managing long bone metastases. Orthop Clin North Am. 45(1):109-19, 2014
                                          3. Eiber M et al: Performance of whole-body integrated 18F-FDG PET/MR in comparison to PET/CT for evaluation of malignant bone lesions. J Nucl Med. 55(2):191-7, 2014
                                          4. Mick CG et al: Molecular imaging in oncology: (18)F-sodium fluoride PET imaging of osseous metastatic disease. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 203(2):263-71, 2014
                                          5. Iagaru A et al: Pilot prospective evaluation of 99mTc-MDP scintigraphy, 18F NaF PET/CT, 18F FDG PET/CT and whole-body MRI for detection of skeletal metastases. Clin Nucl Med. 38(7):e290-6, 2013
                                          6. Ibrahim T et al: Metastatic bone disease in the era of bone-targeted therapy: clinical impact. Tumori. 99(1):1-9, 2013
                                          7. Kota G et al: PET/CT illustration of metastatic breast cancer to the left mandibular foramen. Clin Nucl Med. 38(5):385-6, 2013
                                          8. Wong KK et al: Dynamic bone imaging with 99mTc-labeled diphosphonates and 18F-NaF: mechanisms and applications. J Nucl Med. 54(4):590-9, 2013
                                          9. Hori T et al: Skeletal metastasis of carcinoid tumors: Two case reports and review of the literature. Oncol Lett. 3(5):1105-1108, 2012
                                          10. Huang Q et al: Biochemical-markers for the diagnosis of bone metastasis: a clinical review. Cancer Epidemiol. 36(1):94-8, 2012
                                          11. Mackiewicz-Wysocka M et al: Progress in the treatment of bone metastases in cancer patients. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 21(6):785-95, 2012
                                          12. Qu X et al: A meta-analysis of ¹⁸FDG-PET-CT, ¹⁸FDG-PET, MRI and bone scintigraphy for diagnosis of bone metastases in patients with lung cancer. Eur J Radiol. 81(5):1007-15, 2012
                                          13. Thornton E et al: Imaging features of primary and secondary malignant tumours of the sacrum. Br J Radiol. 85(1011):279-86, 2012
                                          14. van der Horst G et al: Preclinical imaging of the cellular and molecular events in the multistep process of bone metastasis. Future Oncol. 8(4):415-30, 2012
                                          15. Sturge J et al: Bone metastasis in prostate cancer: emerging therapeutic strategies. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2011 Jun;8(6):357-68. Epub 2011 May 10. Review. Erratum in: Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 8(10):568, 2011
                                          16. Liu T et al: A meta-analysis of 18FDG-PET, MRI and bone scintigraphy for diagnosis of bone metastases in patients with breast cancer. Skeletal Radiol. 40(5):523-31, 2011
                                          17. Tarnawska-Pierścińska M et al: Bone metastases diagnosis possibilities in studies with the use of 18F-NaF and 18F-FDG. Nucl Med Rev Cent East Eur. 14(2):105-8, 2011
                                          18. Vassiliou V et al: Bone metastases: assessment of therapeutic response through radiological and nuclear medicine imaging modalities. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 23(9):632-45, 2011
                                          19. Yang HL et al: Diagnosis of bone metastases: a meta-analysis comparing ¹⁸FDG PET, CT, MRI and bone scintigraphy. Eur Radiol. 21(12):2604-17, 2011
                                          20. Cook GJ: PET and PET/CT imaging of skeletal metastases. Cancer Imaging. 10:1-8, 2010
                                          21. Segall G et al: SNM practice guideline for sodium 18F-fluoride PET/CT bone scans 1.0. J Nucl Med. 51(11):1813-20, 2010
                                          22. Elgazzar AH et al: Metastatic bone disease: evaluation by functional imaging in correlation with morphologic modalities. Gulf J Oncolog. (5):9-21, 2009
                                          23. Alix-Panabières C et al: Circulating tumor cells and bone marrow micrometastasis. Clin Cancer Res. 14(16):5013-21, 2008
                                          24. Delbeke D et al: Procedure guideline for tumor imaging with 18F-FDG PET/CT 1.0. J Nucl Med. 47(5):885-95, 2006
                                          25. Fujimoto R et al: Diagnostic accuracy of bone metastases detection in cancer patients: comparison between bone scintigraphy and whole-body FDG-PET. Ann Nucl Med. 20(6):399-408, 2006
                                          26. Schmidt GP et al: Screening for bone metastases: whole-body MRI using a 32-channel system versus dual-modality PET-CT. Eur Radiol. 2006
                                          27. Donohoe KJ et al: Procedure guideline for bone scintigraphy: 1.0. Society of Nuclear Medicine. J Nucl Med. 37(11):1903-6, 1996
                                          28. Schneider JA et al: Flare on bone scintigraphy following Taxol chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer. J Nucl Med. 35(11):1748-52, 1994