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Metastatic Neuroblastoma
Bernadette L. Koch, MD; Kevin R. Moore, MD; Anne G. Osborn, MD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Neuroblastoma (NB)
            • Definitions

              • Malignant tumor of sympathetic chain primitive neural crest cells

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Consider

                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Irwin MS et al: Revised neuroblastoma risk classification system: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol. ePub, 2021
                                              2. Hill-Kayser CE et al: Outcomes after proton therapy for treatment of pediatric high-risk neuroblastoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 104(2):401-8, 2019
                                              3. Morgenstern DA et al: The challenge of defining "ultra-high-risk" neuroblastoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 66(4):e27556, 2019
                                              4. Newman EA et al: Update on neuroblastoma. J Pediatr Surg. 54(3):383-9, 2019
                                              5. Chen AM et al: A review of neuroblastoma image-defined risk factors on magnetic resonance imaging. Pediatr Radiol. 48(9):1337-47, 2018
                                              6. Li C et al: Prognostic value of metabolic indices and bone marrow uptake pattern on preoperative 18F-FDG PET/CT in pediatric patients with neuroblastoma. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 45(2):306-15, 2018
                                              7. Tomolonis JA et al: Neuroblastoma pathogenesis: deregulation of embryonic neural crest development. Cell Tissue Res. 372(2):245-62, 2018
                                              8. Ahmed AA et al: Neuroblastoma in children: update on clinicopathologic and genetic prognostic factors. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 34(3):165-85, 2017
                                              9. Di Cataldo A et al: Metastatic neuroblastoma in infants: are survival rates excellent only within the stringent framework of clinical trials? Clin Transl Oncol. 19(1):76-83, 2017
                                              10. DuBois SG et al: MIBG avidity correlates with clinical features, tumor biology, and outcomes in neuroblastoma: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 64(11), 2017
                                              11. Newman EA et al: Recent biologic and genetic advances in neuroblastoma: implications for diagnostic, risk stratification, and treatment strategies. Semin Pediatr Surg. 25(5):257-64, 2016
                                              12. Latimer E et al: Ultrastructural features of neuroblastic tumours in relation to morphological, and molecular findings; a retrospective review study. BMC Clin Pathol. 14(1):13, 2014
                                              13. Nabavizadeh SA et al: CT and MRI of pediatric skull lesions with fluid-fluid levels. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 35(3):604-8, 2014
                                              14. Nabavizadeh SA et al: Imaging findings of patients with metastatic neuroblastoma to the brain. Acad Radiol. 21(3):329-37, 2014
                                              15. Wiens AL et al: The pathological spectrum of solid CNS metastases in the pediatric population. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 14(2):129-35, 2014
                                              16. Khandeparkar SG et al: Primary congenital sacrococcygeal neuroblastoma: a case report with immunohistochemical study and review of literature. J Pediatr Neurosci. 8(3):239-42, 2013
                                              17. Liu B et al: Comparison of [123I]MIBG and [131I]MIBG for imaging of neuroblastoma and other neural crest tumors. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 57(1):21-8, 2013
                                              18. Mueller WP et al: Nuclear medicine and multimodality imaging of pediatric neuroblastoma. Pediatr Radiol. 43(4):418-27, 2013
                                              19. Piccardo A et al: PET/CT imaging in neuroblastoma. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 57(1):29-39, 2013
                                              20. D'Ambrosio N et al: Imaging of metastatic CNS neuroblastoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 194(5):1223-9, 2010
                                              21. Heck JE et al: The epidemiology of neuroblastoma: a review. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 23(2):125-43, 2009
                                              22. Rothenberg AB et al: The association between neuroblastoma and opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome: a historical review. Pediatr Radiol. 39(7):723-6, 2009
                                              23. Chung EM et al: From the Archives of the AFIP. Pediatric orbit tumors and tumorlike lesions: osseous lesions of the orbit. Radiographics. 28(4):1193-214, 2008
                                              24. Scanga DR et al: Value of FDG PET imaging in the management of patients with thyroid, neuroendocrine, and neural crest tumors. Clin Nucl Med. 29(2):86-90, 2004
                                              25. Jaing TH et al: Brain metastases in children with neuroblastoma--a single-institution experience. Med Pediatr Oncol. 41(6):570-1, 2003
                                              26. Pfluger T et al: Integrated imaging using MRI and 123I metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy to improve sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of pediatric neuroblastoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 181(4):1115-24, 2003
                                              27. Lonergan GJ et al: Neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, and ganglioneuroma: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 22(4):911-34, 2002
                                              Related Anatomy
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                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                    • Clinical Issues

                                                      • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                                        • Abbreviations

                                                          • Neuroblastoma (NB)
                                                        • Definitions

                                                          • Malignant tumor of sympathetic chain primitive neural crest cells

                                                        IMAGING

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • Radiographic Findings

                                                            • CT Findings

                                                              • MR Findings

                                                                • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                                      • General Features

                                                                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                              • Presentation

                                                                                • Demographics

                                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                      • Consider

                                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Irwin MS et al: Revised neuroblastoma risk classification system: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol. ePub, 2021
                                                                                          2. Hill-Kayser CE et al: Outcomes after proton therapy for treatment of pediatric high-risk neuroblastoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 104(2):401-8, 2019
                                                                                          3. Morgenstern DA et al: The challenge of defining "ultra-high-risk" neuroblastoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 66(4):e27556, 2019
                                                                                          4. Newman EA et al: Update on neuroblastoma. J Pediatr Surg. 54(3):383-9, 2019
                                                                                          5. Chen AM et al: A review of neuroblastoma image-defined risk factors on magnetic resonance imaging. Pediatr Radiol. 48(9):1337-47, 2018
                                                                                          6. Li C et al: Prognostic value of metabolic indices and bone marrow uptake pattern on preoperative 18F-FDG PET/CT in pediatric patients with neuroblastoma. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 45(2):306-15, 2018
                                                                                          7. Tomolonis JA et al: Neuroblastoma pathogenesis: deregulation of embryonic neural crest development. Cell Tissue Res. 372(2):245-62, 2018
                                                                                          8. Ahmed AA et al: Neuroblastoma in children: update on clinicopathologic and genetic prognostic factors. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 34(3):165-85, 2017
                                                                                          9. Di Cataldo A et al: Metastatic neuroblastoma in infants: are survival rates excellent only within the stringent framework of clinical trials? Clin Transl Oncol. 19(1):76-83, 2017
                                                                                          10. DuBois SG et al: MIBG avidity correlates with clinical features, tumor biology, and outcomes in neuroblastoma: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 64(11), 2017
                                                                                          11. Newman EA et al: Recent biologic and genetic advances in neuroblastoma: implications for diagnostic, risk stratification, and treatment strategies. Semin Pediatr Surg. 25(5):257-64, 2016
                                                                                          12. Latimer E et al: Ultrastructural features of neuroblastic tumours in relation to morphological, and molecular findings; a retrospective review study. BMC Clin Pathol. 14(1):13, 2014
                                                                                          13. Nabavizadeh SA et al: CT and MRI of pediatric skull lesions with fluid-fluid levels. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 35(3):604-8, 2014
                                                                                          14. Nabavizadeh SA et al: Imaging findings of patients with metastatic neuroblastoma to the brain. Acad Radiol. 21(3):329-37, 2014
                                                                                          15. Wiens AL et al: The pathological spectrum of solid CNS metastases in the pediatric population. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 14(2):129-35, 2014
                                                                                          16. Khandeparkar SG et al: Primary congenital sacrococcygeal neuroblastoma: a case report with immunohistochemical study and review of literature. J Pediatr Neurosci. 8(3):239-42, 2013
                                                                                          17. Liu B et al: Comparison of [123I]MIBG and [131I]MIBG for imaging of neuroblastoma and other neural crest tumors. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 57(1):21-8, 2013
                                                                                          18. Mueller WP et al: Nuclear medicine and multimodality imaging of pediatric neuroblastoma. Pediatr Radiol. 43(4):418-27, 2013
                                                                                          19. Piccardo A et al: PET/CT imaging in neuroblastoma. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 57(1):29-39, 2013
                                                                                          20. D'Ambrosio N et al: Imaging of metastatic CNS neuroblastoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 194(5):1223-9, 2010
                                                                                          21. Heck JE et al: The epidemiology of neuroblastoma: a review. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 23(2):125-43, 2009
                                                                                          22. Rothenberg AB et al: The association between neuroblastoma and opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome: a historical review. Pediatr Radiol. 39(7):723-6, 2009
                                                                                          23. Chung EM et al: From the Archives of the AFIP. Pediatric orbit tumors and tumorlike lesions: osseous lesions of the orbit. Radiographics. 28(4):1193-214, 2008
                                                                                          24. Scanga DR et al: Value of FDG PET imaging in the management of patients with thyroid, neuroendocrine, and neural crest tumors. Clin Nucl Med. 29(2):86-90, 2004
                                                                                          25. Jaing TH et al: Brain metastases in children with neuroblastoma--a single-institution experience. Med Pediatr Oncol. 41(6):570-1, 2003
                                                                                          26. Pfluger T et al: Integrated imaging using MRI and 123I metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy to improve sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of pediatric neuroblastoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 181(4):1115-24, 2003
                                                                                          27. Lonergan GJ et al: Neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, and ganglioneuroma: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 22(4):911-34, 2002