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Miscellaneous Parasites
Karen L. Salzman, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Top Differential Diagnoses

      • Pathology

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Definitions

          • Rare parasitic infection affecting CNS
          • Includes paragonimiasis, schistosomiasis, sparganosis, trichinosis, trypanosomiasis

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • CT Findings

            • MR Findings

              • Imaging Recommendations

                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                  PATHOLOGY

                  • General Features

                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                        • Presentation

                          • Demographics

                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                              • Treatment

                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                • Consider

                                  Selected References

                                  1. Mas-Coma S et al: Neurological and ocular fascioliasis in humans. Adv Parasitol. 84:27-149, 2014
                                  2. Chu S et al: Magnetic resonance imaging features of pathologically proven cerebral sparganosis. J Int Med Res. 41(3):867-77, 2013
                                  3. Kampondeni SD et al: MRI findings in a cohort of brain injured survivors of pediatric cerebral malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 88(3):542-6, 2013
                                  4. Li Y et al: Brain MR imaging changes in patients with hepatic schistosomiasis japonicum without liver dysfunction. Neurotoxicology. 35:101-5, 2013
                                  5. MacLean L et al: Imaging African trypanosomes. Parasite Immunol. 35(9-10):283-94, 2013
                                  6. Nalini A et al: Severe form of radiculo - myelo - neuropathy with meningo - encephalitis secondary to Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection: unusual corpus callosal lesions and serial magnetic resonance imaging findings. Neurol India. 61(4):414-8, 2013
                                  7. Gong C et al: Cerebral sparganosis in children: epidemiological, clinical and MR imaging characteristics. BMC Pediatr. 12:155, 2012
                                  8. Mohindra S et al: Varied types of intracranial hydatid cysts: radiological features and management techniques. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 154(1):165-72, 2012
                                  9. Potchen MJ et al: Acute brain MRI findings in 120 Malawian children with cerebral malaria: new insights into an ancient disease. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 33(9):1740-6, 2012
                                  10. Yamasaki K et al: Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 51(9):667-70, 2011
                                  11. George J et al: Cerebral schistosomiasis--an unusual presentation of an intracranial mass lesion. Can J Neurol Sci. 36(2):244-7, 2009
                                  12. Shu K et al: Surgical treatment of cerebellar schistosomiasis. Neurosurgery. 64(5):941-3; discussion 943-4, 2009
                                  13. Chen Z et al: Acute cerebral paragonimiasis presenting as hemorrhagic stroke in a child. Pediatr Neurol. 39(2):133-6, 2008
                                  14. Devine MJ et al: Neuroschistosomiasis presenting as brainstem encephalitis. Neurology. 70(23):2262-4, 2008
                                  15. Ferrari TC et al: Immune response and pathogenesis of neuroschistosomiasis mansoni. Acta Trop. 108(2-3):83-8, 2008
                                  16. Rengarajan S et al: Cerebral sparganosis: a diagnostic challenge. Br J Neurosurg. 22(6):784-6, 2008
                                  17. Kim IY et al: Contralateral migration of cerebral sparganosis through the splenium. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 109(8):720-4, 2007
                                  18. Silva JC et al: Schistosomiasis mansoni presenting as a cerebellar tumor: case report. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 65(3B):845-7, 2007
                                  19. Song T et al: CT and MR characteristics of cerebral sparganosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 28(9):1700-5, 2007
                                  20. Bo G et al: Neuroimaging and pathological findings in a child with cerebral sparganosis. Case report. J Neurosurg. 105(6 Suppl):470-2, 2006
                                  21. Liu HQ et al: Characteristic magnetic resonance enhancement pattern in cerebral schistosomiasis. Chin Med Sci J. 21(4):223-7, 2006
                                  22. Roberts M et al: Cerebral schistosomiasis. Lancet Infect Dis. 6(12):820, 2006
                                  23. Zhang JS et al: MRI features of pediatric cerebral paragonimiasis in the active stage. J Magn Reson Imaging. 23(4):569-73, 2006
                                  24. Gelal F et al: Diffusion-weighted and conventional MR imaging in neurotrichinosis. Acta Radiol. 46(2):196-9, 2005
                                  25. Shahlaie K et al: Parasitic central nervous system infections: echinococcus and schistosoma. Rev Neurol Dis. 2(4):176-85, 2005
                                  26. Klion AD et al: The role of eosinophils in host defense against helminth parasites. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 113(1):30-7, 2004
                                  27. Polat P et al: Hydatid disease from head to toe. Radiographics. 23(2):475-94; quiz 536-7, 2003
                                  28. Patankar TF et al: Adult cerebral malaria: prognostic importance of imaging findings and correlation with postmortem findings. Radiology. 224(3):811-6, 2002
                                  29. Im JG et al: Current diagnostic imaging of pulmonary and cerebral paragonimiasis, with pathological correlation. Semin Roentgenol. 32(4):301-24, 1997
                                  30. Feydy A et al: MRI in a case of neurotrichinosis. Neuroradiology. 38 Suppl 1:S80-2, 1996
                                  31. Kusner DJ et al: Cerebral paragonimiasis. Semin Neurol. 13(2):201-8, 1993
                                  Related Anatomy
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                                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                  References
                                  Tables

                                  Tables

                                  KEY FACTS

                                  • Imaging

                                    • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                      • Pathology

                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                        • Definitions

                                          • Rare parasitic infection affecting CNS
                                          • Includes paragonimiasis, schistosomiasis, sparganosis, trichinosis, trypanosomiasis

                                        IMAGING

                                        • General Features

                                          • CT Findings

                                            • MR Findings

                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                        • Presentation

                                                          • Demographics

                                                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                              • Treatment

                                                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                • Consider

                                                                  Selected References

                                                                  1. Mas-Coma S et al: Neurological and ocular fascioliasis in humans. Adv Parasitol. 84:27-149, 2014
                                                                  2. Chu S et al: Magnetic resonance imaging features of pathologically proven cerebral sparganosis. J Int Med Res. 41(3):867-77, 2013
                                                                  3. Kampondeni SD et al: MRI findings in a cohort of brain injured survivors of pediatric cerebral malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 88(3):542-6, 2013
                                                                  4. Li Y et al: Brain MR imaging changes in patients with hepatic schistosomiasis japonicum without liver dysfunction. Neurotoxicology. 35:101-5, 2013
                                                                  5. MacLean L et al: Imaging African trypanosomes. Parasite Immunol. 35(9-10):283-94, 2013
                                                                  6. Nalini A et al: Severe form of radiculo - myelo - neuropathy with meningo - encephalitis secondary to Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection: unusual corpus callosal lesions and serial magnetic resonance imaging findings. Neurol India. 61(4):414-8, 2013
                                                                  7. Gong C et al: Cerebral sparganosis in children: epidemiological, clinical and MR imaging characteristics. BMC Pediatr. 12:155, 2012
                                                                  8. Mohindra S et al: Varied types of intracranial hydatid cysts: radiological features and management techniques. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 154(1):165-72, 2012
                                                                  9. Potchen MJ et al: Acute brain MRI findings in 120 Malawian children with cerebral malaria: new insights into an ancient disease. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 33(9):1740-6, 2012
                                                                  10. Yamasaki K et al: Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 51(9):667-70, 2011
                                                                  11. George J et al: Cerebral schistosomiasis--an unusual presentation of an intracranial mass lesion. Can J Neurol Sci. 36(2):244-7, 2009
                                                                  12. Shu K et al: Surgical treatment of cerebellar schistosomiasis. Neurosurgery. 64(5):941-3; discussion 943-4, 2009
                                                                  13. Chen Z et al: Acute cerebral paragonimiasis presenting as hemorrhagic stroke in a child. Pediatr Neurol. 39(2):133-6, 2008
                                                                  14. Devine MJ et al: Neuroschistosomiasis presenting as brainstem encephalitis. Neurology. 70(23):2262-4, 2008
                                                                  15. Ferrari TC et al: Immune response and pathogenesis of neuroschistosomiasis mansoni. Acta Trop. 108(2-3):83-8, 2008
                                                                  16. Rengarajan S et al: Cerebral sparganosis: a diagnostic challenge. Br J Neurosurg. 22(6):784-6, 2008
                                                                  17. Kim IY et al: Contralateral migration of cerebral sparganosis through the splenium. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 109(8):720-4, 2007
                                                                  18. Silva JC et al: Schistosomiasis mansoni presenting as a cerebellar tumor: case report. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 65(3B):845-7, 2007
                                                                  19. Song T et al: CT and MR characteristics of cerebral sparganosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 28(9):1700-5, 2007
                                                                  20. Bo G et al: Neuroimaging and pathological findings in a child with cerebral sparganosis. Case report. J Neurosurg. 105(6 Suppl):470-2, 2006
                                                                  21. Liu HQ et al: Characteristic magnetic resonance enhancement pattern in cerebral schistosomiasis. Chin Med Sci J. 21(4):223-7, 2006
                                                                  22. Roberts M et al: Cerebral schistosomiasis. Lancet Infect Dis. 6(12):820, 2006
                                                                  23. Zhang JS et al: MRI features of pediatric cerebral paragonimiasis in the active stage. J Magn Reson Imaging. 23(4):569-73, 2006
                                                                  24. Gelal F et al: Diffusion-weighted and conventional MR imaging in neurotrichinosis. Acta Radiol. 46(2):196-9, 2005
                                                                  25. Shahlaie K et al: Parasitic central nervous system infections: echinococcus and schistosoma. Rev Neurol Dis. 2(4):176-85, 2005
                                                                  26. Klion AD et al: The role of eosinophils in host defense against helminth parasites. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 113(1):30-7, 2004
                                                                  27. Polat P et al: Hydatid disease from head to toe. Radiographics. 23(2):475-94; quiz 536-7, 2003
                                                                  28. Patankar TF et al: Adult cerebral malaria: prognostic importance of imaging findings and correlation with postmortem findings. Radiology. 224(3):811-6, 2002
                                                                  29. Im JG et al: Current diagnostic imaging of pulmonary and cerebral paragonimiasis, with pathological correlation. Semin Roentgenol. 32(4):301-24, 1997
                                                                  30. Feydy A et al: MRI in a case of neurotrichinosis. Neuroradiology. 38 Suppl 1:S80-2, 1996
                                                                  31. Kusner DJ et al: Cerebral paragonimiasis. Semin Neurol. 13(2):201-8, 1993