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Miscellaneous Vasculitis
Anne G. Osborn, MD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Inflammatory vasculopathy (more general term indicating any vascular pathology with inflammation)
              • Arteritis (specifies arterial inflammation)
              • Angiitis (inflammation of either arteries or veins)
            • Definitions

              • Heterogeneous group of CNS disorders characterized by nonatheromatous inflammation and necrosis of blood vessel walls
              • Involves either arteries or veins

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                    • Angiographic Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Consider

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Destrebecq V et al: Intracranial vessel wall MRI in cryptogenic stroke and intracranial vasculitis. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 29(5):104684, 2020
                                            2. Leao DJ et al: Intracranial vessel wall imaging: applications, interpretation, and pitfalls. Clin Radiol. ePub, 2020
                                            3. Salvador F: ANCA associated vasculitis. Eur J Intern Med. 74:18-28, 2020
                                            4. Arun K et al: Magnetic resonance vessel wall imaging in intracranial atherosclerotic disease simulating vasculitis. Neurol India. 67(2):588-9, 2019
                                            5. Castro PNP et al: Sarcoid vasculitis presenting with stroke: 3D T1 dark blood vessel wall imaging. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 77(6):447, 2019
                                            6. Corrêa DG et al: Use of high-resolution vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of temporal arteritis. Rheumatol Int. 39(8):1479-81, 2019
                                            7. Corrêa DG et al: High-resolution vessel wall MR imaging as an alternative to brain biopsy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 40(3):E17-8, 2019
                                            8. Eiden S et al: High-resolution contrast-enhanced vessel wall imaging in patients with suspected cerebral vasculitis: prospective comparison of whole-brain 3D T1 SPACE versus 2D T1 black blood MRI at 3 Tesla. PLoS One. 14(3):e0213514, 2019
                                            9. Guggenberger K et al: High-resolution compressed-sensing T1 black-blood MRI : a new multipurpose sequence in vascular neuroimaging? Clin Neuroradiol. ePub, 2019
                                            10. Shulman JG et al: Infectious etiologies of stroke. Semin Neurol. 39(4):482-494, 2019
                                            11. Chen CY et al: Vascular wall imaging in reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome - a 3-T contrast-enhanced MRI study. J Headache Pain. 19(1):74, 2018
                                            12. Van Rooij JL et al: Vessel wall enhancement on MRI in the diagnosis of primary central nervous system vasculitis. Int J Stroke. 13(9):NP24-7, 2018
                                            13. Abdel Razek AA et al: Imaging spectrum of CNS vasculitis. Radiographics. 34(4):873-94, 2014
                                            14. Obusez EC et al: High-resolution MRI vessel wall imaging: spatial and temporal patterns of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome and central nervous system vasculitis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 35(8):1527-32, 2014
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Terminology

                                              • Imaging

                                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                  • Pathology

                                                    • Clinical Issues

                                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                                      • Synonyms

                                                        • Inflammatory vasculopathy (more general term indicating any vascular pathology with inflammation)
                                                        • Arteritis (specifies arterial inflammation)
                                                        • Angiitis (inflammation of either arteries or veins)
                                                      • Definitions

                                                        • Heterogeneous group of CNS disorders characterized by nonatheromatous inflammation and necrosis of blood vessel walls
                                                        • Involves either arteries or veins

                                                      IMAGING

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • CT Findings

                                                          • MR Findings

                                                            • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                              • Angiographic Findings

                                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                    PATHOLOGY

                                                                    • General Features

                                                                      • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                          • Microscopic Features

                                                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                            • Presentation

                                                                              • Demographics

                                                                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                  • Treatment

                                                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                    • Consider

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Destrebecq V et al: Intracranial vessel wall MRI in cryptogenic stroke and intracranial vasculitis. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 29(5):104684, 2020
                                                                                      2. Leao DJ et al: Intracranial vessel wall imaging: applications, interpretation, and pitfalls. Clin Radiol. ePub, 2020
                                                                                      3. Salvador F: ANCA associated vasculitis. Eur J Intern Med. 74:18-28, 2020
                                                                                      4. Arun K et al: Magnetic resonance vessel wall imaging in intracranial atherosclerotic disease simulating vasculitis. Neurol India. 67(2):588-9, 2019
                                                                                      5. Castro PNP et al: Sarcoid vasculitis presenting with stroke: 3D T1 dark blood vessel wall imaging. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 77(6):447, 2019
                                                                                      6. Corrêa DG et al: Use of high-resolution vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of temporal arteritis. Rheumatol Int. 39(8):1479-81, 2019
                                                                                      7. Corrêa DG et al: High-resolution vessel wall MR imaging as an alternative to brain biopsy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 40(3):E17-8, 2019
                                                                                      8. Eiden S et al: High-resolution contrast-enhanced vessel wall imaging in patients with suspected cerebral vasculitis: prospective comparison of whole-brain 3D T1 SPACE versus 2D T1 black blood MRI at 3 Tesla. PLoS One. 14(3):e0213514, 2019
                                                                                      9. Guggenberger K et al: High-resolution compressed-sensing T1 black-blood MRI : a new multipurpose sequence in vascular neuroimaging? Clin Neuroradiol. ePub, 2019
                                                                                      10. Shulman JG et al: Infectious etiologies of stroke. Semin Neurol. 39(4):482-494, 2019
                                                                                      11. Chen CY et al: Vascular wall imaging in reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome - a 3-T contrast-enhanced MRI study. J Headache Pain. 19(1):74, 2018
                                                                                      12. Van Rooij JL et al: Vessel wall enhancement on MRI in the diagnosis of primary central nervous system vasculitis. Int J Stroke. 13(9):NP24-7, 2018
                                                                                      13. Abdel Razek AA et al: Imaging spectrum of CNS vasculitis. Radiographics. 34(4):873-94, 2014
                                                                                      14. Obusez EC et al: High-resolution MRI vessel wall imaging: spatial and temporal patterns of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome and central nervous system vasculitis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 35(8):1527-32, 2014