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Mitral Stenosis
Daniel W. Entrikin, MD; Gudrun Feuchtner, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Definitions

              • Obstruction to left ventricular blood inflow at level of mitral valve (MV)

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Echocardiographic Findings

                      • Angiographic Findings

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                  • Microscopic Features

                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                    • Presentation

                                      • Demographics

                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                          • Treatment

                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                            • Consider

                                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                Selected References

                                                1. Wunderlich NC et al: Rheumatic mitral valve stenosis: diagnosis and treatment options. Curr Cardiol Rep. 21(3):14, 2019
                                                2. Nishimura RA et al: 2017 AHA/ACC focused update of the 2014 AHA/ACC Guideline for the Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on clinical practice guidelines. Circulation. 135(25):e1159-95, 2017
                                                3. Sanati HR et al: Percutaneous mitral valvuloplasty using echocardiographic intercommissural diameter as reference for balloon sizing: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Cardiol. 35(12):749-54, 2012
                                                4. Schlosshan D et al: Real-time 3D transesophageal echocardiography for the evaluation of rheumatic mitral stenosis. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 4(6):580-8, 2011
                                                5. Morris MF et al: CT and MR imaging of the mitral valve: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 30(6):1603-20, 2010
                                                6. Bonow RO et al: ACC/AHA 2006 guidelines for the management of patients with valvular heart disease. Circulation. 2006 Aug 1;114(5):e84-231. Review. Erratum in: Circulation. 2007 Apr 17;115(15):e409. Circulation. 121(23):e443, 2010
                                                7. Mahnken AH et al: MDCT detection of mitral valve calcification: prevalence and clinical relevance compared with echocardiography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 188(5):1264-9, 2007
                                                8. Messika-Zeitoun D et al: Assessment of the mitral valve area in patients with mitral stenosis by multislice computed tomography. J Am Coll Cardiol. 48(2):411-3, 2006
                                                9. Movahed MR et al: Increased prevalence of mitral stenosis in women. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 19(7):911-3, 2006
                                                10. Braunwald E: Valvular heart disease. In Braunwald E: Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 2001
                                                11. Otto CM: Mitral stenosis. In Otto CM: Valvular Heart Disease. 1st ed. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 1999
                                                Related Anatomy
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                                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                                References
                                                Tables

                                                Tables

                                                KEY FACTS

                                                • Terminology

                                                  • Imaging

                                                    • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                      • Clinical Issues

                                                        • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                                          • Definitions

                                                            • Obstruction to left ventricular blood inflow at level of mitral valve (MV)

                                                          IMAGING

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Radiographic Findings

                                                              • CT Findings

                                                                • MR Findings

                                                                  • Echocardiographic Findings

                                                                    • Angiographic Findings

                                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                                          • General Features

                                                                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                                • Microscopic Features

                                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                          • Consider

                                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                              Selected References

                                                                                              1. Wunderlich NC et al: Rheumatic mitral valve stenosis: diagnosis and treatment options. Curr Cardiol Rep. 21(3):14, 2019
                                                                                              2. Nishimura RA et al: 2017 AHA/ACC focused update of the 2014 AHA/ACC Guideline for the Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on clinical practice guidelines. Circulation. 135(25):e1159-95, 2017
                                                                                              3. Sanati HR et al: Percutaneous mitral valvuloplasty using echocardiographic intercommissural diameter as reference for balloon sizing: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Cardiol. 35(12):749-54, 2012
                                                                                              4. Schlosshan D et al: Real-time 3D transesophageal echocardiography for the evaluation of rheumatic mitral stenosis. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 4(6):580-8, 2011
                                                                                              5. Morris MF et al: CT and MR imaging of the mitral valve: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 30(6):1603-20, 2010
                                                                                              6. Bonow RO et al: ACC/AHA 2006 guidelines for the management of patients with valvular heart disease. Circulation. 2006 Aug 1;114(5):e84-231. Review. Erratum in: Circulation. 2007 Apr 17;115(15):e409. Circulation. 121(23):e443, 2010
                                                                                              7. Mahnken AH et al: MDCT detection of mitral valve calcification: prevalence and clinical relevance compared with echocardiography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 188(5):1264-9, 2007
                                                                                              8. Messika-Zeitoun D et al: Assessment of the mitral valve area in patients with mitral stenosis by multislice computed tomography. J Am Coll Cardiol. 48(2):411-3, 2006
                                                                                              9. Movahed MR et al: Increased prevalence of mitral stenosis in women. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 19(7):911-3, 2006
                                                                                              10. Braunwald E: Valvular heart disease. In Braunwald E: Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 2001
                                                                                              11. Otto CM: Mitral stenosis. In Otto CM: Valvular Heart Disease. 1st ed. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 1999