link
Bookmarks
Mitral Valve Disease
Claudio Silva, MD, MSc, MBA; John P. Lichtenberger, III, MD
To access 4,300 diagnoses written by the world's leading experts in radiology, please log in or subscribe.Subscribe
0
10
0
1

KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Mitral valve (MV)
              • Mitral regurgitation (MR)
              • Mitral stenosis (MS)
            • Synonyms

              • Mitral regurgitation = MR
            • Definitions

              • MR: Systolic blood backflow from left ventricle to left atrium across MV
                • Acute versus chronic
                • Most common valve dysfunction in USA
              • MV prolapse: Protrusion of MV leaflet(s) > 2 mm into left atrium
                • Important cause of MR
              • Flail leaflet: Rupture of papillary muscle or chordae tendineae with systolic eversion of leaflet tip into atrium
                • Strongly associated with acute and severe MR
              • MS: Restricted opening of MV leaflets causing impaired left ventricular inflow across MV
              • Mitral annular calcification (MAC): Excessive calcification of mitral annulus
                • Central degeneration may lead to liquefaction, termed caseous MAC

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Echocardiographic Findings

                      • Angiographic Findings

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Augustinas T et al: Multimodality Imaging of the Mitral Valve: Morphology, Function, and Disease. In Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology. Elsevier, 2020
                                            2. Garg P et al: Assessment of mitral valve regurgitation by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. Nat Rev Cardiol. 17(5):298-312, 2020
                                            3. Rajiah P et al: Multimodality imaging of complications of cardiac valve surgeries. Radiographics. 39(4):932-56, 2019
                                            4. Gaasch WH et al: Secondary mitral regurgitation (part 1): volumetric quantification and analysis. Heart. 104(8):634-8, 2018
                                            5. Morris MF et al: CT and MR imaging of the mitral valve: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 30(6):1603-20, 2010
                                            6. Shah PM: Current concepts in mitral valve prolapse--diagnosis and management. J Cardiol. 56(2):125-33, 2010
                                            7. Chen JJ et al: CT angiography of the cardiac valves: normal, diseased, and postoperative appearances. Radiographics. 29(5):1393-412, 2009
                                            Related Anatomy
                                            Loading...
                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
                                            Loading...
                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Terminology

                                              • Imaging

                                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                  • Clinical Issues

                                                    • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                                      • Abbreviations

                                                        • Mitral valve (MV)
                                                        • Mitral regurgitation (MR)
                                                        • Mitral stenosis (MS)
                                                      • Synonyms

                                                        • Mitral regurgitation = MR
                                                      • Definitions

                                                        • MR: Systolic blood backflow from left ventricle to left atrium across MV
                                                          • Acute versus chronic
                                                          • Most common valve dysfunction in USA
                                                        • MV prolapse: Protrusion of MV leaflet(s) > 2 mm into left atrium
                                                          • Important cause of MR
                                                        • Flail leaflet: Rupture of papillary muscle or chordae tendineae with systolic eversion of leaflet tip into atrium
                                                          • Strongly associated with acute and severe MR
                                                        • MS: Restricted opening of MV leaflets causing impaired left ventricular inflow across MV
                                                        • Mitral annular calcification (MAC): Excessive calcification of mitral annulus
                                                          • Central degeneration may lead to liquefaction, termed caseous MAC

                                                      IMAGING

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • Radiographic Findings

                                                          • CT Findings

                                                            • MR Findings

                                                              • Echocardiographic Findings

                                                                • Angiographic Findings

                                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                                      • General Features

                                                                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                          • Microscopic Features

                                                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                            • Presentation

                                                                              • Demographics

                                                                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                  • Treatment

                                                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Augustinas T et al: Multimodality Imaging of the Mitral Valve: Morphology, Function, and Disease. In Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology. Elsevier, 2020
                                                                                      2. Garg P et al: Assessment of mitral valve regurgitation by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. Nat Rev Cardiol. 17(5):298-312, 2020
                                                                                      3. Rajiah P et al: Multimodality imaging of complications of cardiac valve surgeries. Radiographics. 39(4):932-56, 2019
                                                                                      4. Gaasch WH et al: Secondary mitral regurgitation (part 1): volumetric quantification and analysis. Heart. 104(8):634-8, 2018
                                                                                      5. Morris MF et al: CT and MR imaging of the mitral valve: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 30(6):1603-20, 2010
                                                                                      6. Shah PM: Current concepts in mitral valve prolapse--diagnosis and management. J Cardiol. 56(2):125-33, 2010
                                                                                      7. Chen JJ et al: CT angiography of the cardiac valves: normal, diseased, and postoperative appearances. Radiographics. 29(5):1393-412, 2009