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Mitral Valve Dysfunction
John P. Lichtenberger, III, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Mitral valve (MV)
            • Synonyms

              • Mitral insufficiency
            • Definitions

              • Mitral regurgitation (MR): Retrograde blood flow across mitral valve from left ventricle to left atrium
                • May be acute or chronic
                • Most common valve dysfunction in USA
              • Mitral valve prolapse: Protrusion of mitral valve leaflet(s) > 2 mm into left atrium
                • Important cause of MR
              • Flail leaflet: Systolic eversion of leaflet tip into atrium
                • Strongly associated with severe MR
              • Mitral stenosis (MS): Impaired left ventricular inflow across MV
              • Mitral annular calcification (MAC): Excessive calcification of mitral annulus
                • Central degeneration may lead to liquefaction, termed caseous MAC

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Echocardiographic Findings

                      • Angiographic Findings

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Morris MF et al: CT and MR imaging of the mitral valve: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 30(6):1603-20, 2010
                                            2. Shah PM: Current concepts in mitral valve prolapse--diagnosis and management. J Cardiol. 56(2):125-33, 2010
                                            3. Chen JJ et al: CT angiography of the cardiac valves: normal, diseased, and postoperative appearances. Radiographics. 29(5):1393-412, 2009
                                            4. Hayek E et al: Mitral valve prolapse. Lancet. 365(9458):507-18, 2005
                                            5. Valocik G et al: Three-dimensional echocardiography in mitral valve disease. Eur J Echocardiogr. 6(6):443-54, 2005
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Terminology

                                              • Imaging

                                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                  • Clinical Issues

                                                    • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                                      • Abbreviations

                                                        • Mitral valve (MV)
                                                      • Synonyms

                                                        • Mitral insufficiency
                                                      • Definitions

                                                        • Mitral regurgitation (MR): Retrograde blood flow across mitral valve from left ventricle to left atrium
                                                          • May be acute or chronic
                                                          • Most common valve dysfunction in USA
                                                        • Mitral valve prolapse: Protrusion of mitral valve leaflet(s) > 2 mm into left atrium
                                                          • Important cause of MR
                                                        • Flail leaflet: Systolic eversion of leaflet tip into atrium
                                                          • Strongly associated with severe MR
                                                        • Mitral stenosis (MS): Impaired left ventricular inflow across MV
                                                        • Mitral annular calcification (MAC): Excessive calcification of mitral annulus
                                                          • Central degeneration may lead to liquefaction, termed caseous MAC

                                                      IMAGING

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • Radiographic Findings

                                                          • CT Findings

                                                            • MR Findings

                                                              • Echocardiographic Findings

                                                                • Angiographic Findings

                                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                                      • General Features

                                                                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                          • Microscopic Features

                                                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                            • Presentation

                                                                              • Demographics

                                                                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                  • Treatment

                                                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Morris MF et al: CT and MR imaging of the mitral valve: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 30(6):1603-20, 2010
                                                                                      2. Shah PM: Current concepts in mitral valve prolapse--diagnosis and management. J Cardiol. 56(2):125-33, 2010
                                                                                      3. Chen JJ et al: CT angiography of the cardiac valves: normal, diseased, and postoperative appearances. Radiographics. 29(5):1393-412, 2009
                                                                                      4. Hayek E et al: Mitral valve prolapse. Lancet. 365(9458):507-18, 2005
                                                                                      5. Valocik G et al: Three-dimensional echocardiography in mitral valve disease. Eur J Echocardiogr. 6(6):443-54, 2005