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MR Technique and Anatomy
Marc S. Tubay, MD; Refky Nicola, MS, DO
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KEY FACTS

  • Procedure

    TERMINOLOGY

    • Definitions

      • Imaging modality that measures tissue response to radiofrequency pulses in magnetic field to generate images

    PREPROCEDURE

    • Indications

      • Contraindications

        • Getting Started

          • Advantages

            • Disadvantages

              PROCEDURE

              • Patient Position/Location

                • Equipment Preparation

                  • Alternative Procedures/Therapies

                    • MR Technique

                      • MR Anatomy

                        Selected References

                        1. Sakala MD et al: Advances in MR imaging of the female pelvis. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 28(3):415-31, 2020
                        2. Mahajan A et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of gynecological malignancies: role in personalized management. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 38(3):231-68, 2017
                        3. Nougaret S et al: Pearls and pitfalls in MRI of gynecologic malignancy with diffusion-weighted technique. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 200(2):261-76, 2013
                        4. Sala E et al: The added role of MR imaging in treatment stratification of patients with gynecologic malignancies: what the radiologist needs to know. Radiology. 266(3):717-40, 2013
                        5. Wakefield JC et al: New MR techniques in gynecologic cancer. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 200(2):249-60, 2013
                        6. Beddy P et al: FIGO staging system for endometrial cancer: added benefits of MR imaging. Radiographics. 32(1):241-54, 2012
                        7. Freeman SJ et al: The revised FIGO staging system for uterine malignancies: implications for MR imaging. Radiographics. 32(6):1805-27, 2012
                        8. Haldorsen IS et al: Staging of endometrial carcinomas with MRI using traditional and novel MRI techniques. Clin Radiol. 67(1):2-12, 2012
                        9. Hosseinzadeh K et al: Imaging of the female perineum in adults. Radiographics. 32(4):E129-68, 2012
                        10. Langer JE et al: Imaging of the female pelvis through the life cycle. Radiographics. 32(6):1575-97, 2012
                        11. Zijta FM et al: Evaluation of the female pelvic floor in pelvic organ prolapse using 3.0-Tesla diffusion tensor imaging and fibre tractography. Eur Radiol. 22(12):2806-13, 2012
                        12. Punwani S: Contrast enhanced MR imaging of female pelvic cancers: established methods and emerging applications. Eur J Radiol. 78(1):2-11, 2011
                        13. Takeuchi M et al: Adenomyosis: usual and unusual imaging manifestations, pitfalls, and problem-solving MR imaging techniques. Radiographics. 31(1):99-115, 2011
                        14. Kyriazi S et al: Diffusion-weighted imaging of peritoneal disease for noninvasive staging of advanced ovarian cancer. Radiographics. 30(5):1269-85, 2010
                        15. Sala E et al: The role of dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging in the female pelvis. Eur J Radiol. 76(3):367-85, 2010
                        16. Brandon CJ et al: Anatomy of the perineal membrane as seen in magnetic resonance images of nulliparous women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 200(5):583, 2009
                        17. Colaiacomo MC et al: Dynamic MR imaging of the pelvic floor: a pictorial review. Radiographics. 29(3):e35, 2009
                        18. Qayyum A: Diffusion-weighted imaging in the abdomen and pelvis: concepts and applications. Radiographics. 29(6):1797-810, 2009
                        19. Saremi F et al: Characterization of genitourinary lesions with diffusion-weighted imaging. Radiographics. 29(5):1295-317, 2009
                        20. Whittaker CS et al: Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of female pelvic tumors: a pictorial review. Radiographics. 29(3):759-74; discussion 774-8, 2009
                        21. Griffin N et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of vaginal and vulval pathology. Eur Radiol. 18(6):1269-80, 2008
                        22. Law YM et al: MRI of pelvic floor dysfunction: review. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 191(6 Suppl):S45-53, 2008
                        23. Parikh JH et al: MR imaging features of vaginal malignancies. Radiographics. 28(1):49-63; quiz 322, 2008
                        24. Sadowski EA et al: MR hysterosalpingography with an angiographic time-resolved 3D pulse sequence: assessment of tubal patency. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 191(5):1381-5, 2008
                        25. Sala E: Magnetic resonance imaging of the female pelvis. Semin Roentgenol. 43(4):290-302, 2008
                        26. Elsayes KM et al: Vaginal masses: magnetic resonance imaging features with pathologic correlation. Acta Radiol. 48(8):921-33, 2007
                        27. Lim RP et al: Imaging the female pelvis at 3.0 T. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 17(6):427-43, 2006
                        28. Tamai K et al: MR features of physiologic and benign conditions of the ovary. Eur Radiol. 16(12):2700-11, 2006
                        29. Brown MA et al: MRI of the female pelvis using vaginal gel. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 185(5):1221-7, 2005
                        30. Morakkabati-Spitz N et al: 3.0-T high-field magnetic resonance imaging of the female pelvis: preliminary experiences. Eur Radiol. 15(4):639-44, 2005
                        31. Padhani AR et al: Perfusion MR imaging of extracranial tumor angiogenesis. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 15(1):41-57, 2004
                        32. Kido A et al: Diffusely enlarged uterus: evaluation with MR imaging. Radiographics. 23(6):1423-39, 2003
                        33. Suh DD et al: Magnetic resonance imaging anatomy of the female genitalia in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. J Urol. 170(1):138-44, 2003
                        34. Hamm B et al: MR imaging and CT of the female pelvis: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Eur Radiol. 9(1):3-15, 1999
                        35. Kubik-Huch RA: Female pelvis. Eur Radiol. 9(9):1715-21, 1999
                        36. Shiraiwa M et al: Cervical carcinoma: efficacy of thin-section oblique axial T2-weighted images for evaluating parametrial invasion. Abdom Imaging. 24(5):514-9, 1999
                        37. Siegelman ES et al: Tissue characterization in the female pelvis by means of MR imaging. Radiology. 212(1):5-18, 1999
                        38. Siegelman ES et al: High-resolution MR imaging of the vagina. Radiographics. 17:1183-203, 1997
                        39. Hricak K et al: MRI of the Pelvis: A Text Atlas. 1st ed. Norwalk, Appleton & Lange: 95-7, 1991
                        Related Anatomy
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                        References
                        Tables

                        Tables

                        KEY FACTS

                        • Procedure

                          TERMINOLOGY

                          • Definitions

                            • Imaging modality that measures tissue response to radiofrequency pulses in magnetic field to generate images

                          PREPROCEDURE

                          • Indications

                            • Contraindications

                              • Getting Started

                                • Advantages

                                  • Disadvantages

                                    PROCEDURE

                                    • Patient Position/Location

                                      • Equipment Preparation

                                        • Alternative Procedures/Therapies

                                          • MR Technique

                                            • MR Anatomy

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Sakala MD et al: Advances in MR imaging of the female pelvis. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 28(3):415-31, 2020
                                              2. Mahajan A et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of gynecological malignancies: role in personalized management. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 38(3):231-68, 2017
                                              3. Nougaret S et al: Pearls and pitfalls in MRI of gynecologic malignancy with diffusion-weighted technique. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 200(2):261-76, 2013
                                              4. Sala E et al: The added role of MR imaging in treatment stratification of patients with gynecologic malignancies: what the radiologist needs to know. Radiology. 266(3):717-40, 2013
                                              5. Wakefield JC et al: New MR techniques in gynecologic cancer. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 200(2):249-60, 2013
                                              6. Beddy P et al: FIGO staging system for endometrial cancer: added benefits of MR imaging. Radiographics. 32(1):241-54, 2012
                                              7. Freeman SJ et al: The revised FIGO staging system for uterine malignancies: implications for MR imaging. Radiographics. 32(6):1805-27, 2012
                                              8. Haldorsen IS et al: Staging of endometrial carcinomas with MRI using traditional and novel MRI techniques. Clin Radiol. 67(1):2-12, 2012
                                              9. Hosseinzadeh K et al: Imaging of the female perineum in adults. Radiographics. 32(4):E129-68, 2012
                                              10. Langer JE et al: Imaging of the female pelvis through the life cycle. Radiographics. 32(6):1575-97, 2012
                                              11. Zijta FM et al: Evaluation of the female pelvic floor in pelvic organ prolapse using 3.0-Tesla diffusion tensor imaging and fibre tractography. Eur Radiol. 22(12):2806-13, 2012
                                              12. Punwani S: Contrast enhanced MR imaging of female pelvic cancers: established methods and emerging applications. Eur J Radiol. 78(1):2-11, 2011
                                              13. Takeuchi M et al: Adenomyosis: usual and unusual imaging manifestations, pitfalls, and problem-solving MR imaging techniques. Radiographics. 31(1):99-115, 2011
                                              14. Kyriazi S et al: Diffusion-weighted imaging of peritoneal disease for noninvasive staging of advanced ovarian cancer. Radiographics. 30(5):1269-85, 2010
                                              15. Sala E et al: The role of dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging in the female pelvis. Eur J Radiol. 76(3):367-85, 2010
                                              16. Brandon CJ et al: Anatomy of the perineal membrane as seen in magnetic resonance images of nulliparous women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 200(5):583, 2009
                                              17. Colaiacomo MC et al: Dynamic MR imaging of the pelvic floor: a pictorial review. Radiographics. 29(3):e35, 2009
                                              18. Qayyum A: Diffusion-weighted imaging in the abdomen and pelvis: concepts and applications. Radiographics. 29(6):1797-810, 2009
                                              19. Saremi F et al: Characterization of genitourinary lesions with diffusion-weighted imaging. Radiographics. 29(5):1295-317, 2009
                                              20. Whittaker CS et al: Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of female pelvic tumors: a pictorial review. Radiographics. 29(3):759-74; discussion 774-8, 2009
                                              21. Griffin N et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of vaginal and vulval pathology. Eur Radiol. 18(6):1269-80, 2008
                                              22. Law YM et al: MRI of pelvic floor dysfunction: review. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 191(6 Suppl):S45-53, 2008
                                              23. Parikh JH et al: MR imaging features of vaginal malignancies. Radiographics. 28(1):49-63; quiz 322, 2008
                                              24. Sadowski EA et al: MR hysterosalpingography with an angiographic time-resolved 3D pulse sequence: assessment of tubal patency. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 191(5):1381-5, 2008
                                              25. Sala E: Magnetic resonance imaging of the female pelvis. Semin Roentgenol. 43(4):290-302, 2008
                                              26. Elsayes KM et al: Vaginal masses: magnetic resonance imaging features with pathologic correlation. Acta Radiol. 48(8):921-33, 2007
                                              27. Lim RP et al: Imaging the female pelvis at 3.0 T. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 17(6):427-43, 2006
                                              28. Tamai K et al: MR features of physiologic and benign conditions of the ovary. Eur Radiol. 16(12):2700-11, 2006
                                              29. Brown MA et al: MRI of the female pelvis using vaginal gel. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 185(5):1221-7, 2005
                                              30. Morakkabati-Spitz N et al: 3.0-T high-field magnetic resonance imaging of the female pelvis: preliminary experiences. Eur Radiol. 15(4):639-44, 2005
                                              31. Padhani AR et al: Perfusion MR imaging of extracranial tumor angiogenesis. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 15(1):41-57, 2004
                                              32. Kido A et al: Diffusely enlarged uterus: evaluation with MR imaging. Radiographics. 23(6):1423-39, 2003
                                              33. Suh DD et al: Magnetic resonance imaging anatomy of the female genitalia in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. J Urol. 170(1):138-44, 2003
                                              34. Hamm B et al: MR imaging and CT of the female pelvis: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Eur Radiol. 9(1):3-15, 1999
                                              35. Kubik-Huch RA: Female pelvis. Eur Radiol. 9(9):1715-21, 1999
                                              36. Shiraiwa M et al: Cervical carcinoma: efficacy of thin-section oblique axial T2-weighted images for evaluating parametrial invasion. Abdom Imaging. 24(5):514-9, 1999
                                              37. Siegelman ES et al: Tissue characterization in the female pelvis by means of MR imaging. Radiology. 212(1):5-18, 1999
                                              38. Siegelman ES et al: High-resolution MR imaging of the vagina. Radiographics. 17:1183-203, 1997
                                              39. Hricak K et al: MRI of the Pelvis: A Text Atlas. 1st ed. Norwalk, Appleton & Lange: 95-7, 1991