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Multi-Infarct Dementia
Akiva Mintz, MD, PhD, MHA, CFA; Bryan J. Neth, BS; Christopher T. Whitlow, MD, PhD, MHA
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Definitions

            • Impairments in cognition and behavior affecting functional status due to pathologic changes resulting from various vascular insults throughout brain
            • Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is more comprehensive term incorporating vascular dementia (VaD) as well as other vascular-related cognitive impairment, including mild cognitive impairment due to vascular disease

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Nuclear Medicine Findings

              • Imaging Recommendations

                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                  PATHOLOGY

                  • General Features

                    • Risk Factors

                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                      • Presentation

                        • Demographics

                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                            Selected References

                            1. Eisenmenger LB et al: Advances in PET imaging of degenerative, cerebrovascular, and traumatic causes of dementia. Semin Nucl Med. 46(1):57-87, 2016
                            2. Ishii K: PET Approaches for diagnosis of dementia. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 35(11):2030-8, 2014
                            3. Iadecola C: The pathobiology of vascular dementia. Neuron. 80(4):844-66, 2013
                            4. Jellinger KA: Pathology and pathogenesis of vascular cognitive impairment-a critical update. Front Aging Neurosci. 5:17, 2013
                            5. Risacher SL et al: Neuroimaging biomarkers of neurodegenerative diseases and dementia. Semin Neurol. 33(4):386-416, 2013
                            6. Heiss WD et al: PET imaging in the differential diagnosis of vascular dementia. J Neurol Sci. 322(1-2):268-73, 2012
                            7. Korczyn AD et al: Vascular dementia. J Neurol Sci. 322(1-2):2-10, 2012
                            8. Román G et al: Contribution of neuroimaging to the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Arch Med Res. 43(8):671-6, 2012
                            9. Schmidt H et al: Genetics of subcortical vascular dementia. Exp Gerontol. 47(11):873-7, 2012
                            10. Black SE: Vascular cognitive impairment: epidemiology, subtypes, diagnosis and management. J R Coll Physicians Edinb. 41(1):49-56, 2011
                            11. Chavhan GB et al: Principles, techniques, and applications of T2*-based MR imaging and its special applications. Radiographics. 29(5):1433-49, 2009
                            12. Schuff N et al: Cerebral blood flow in ischemic vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease, measured by arterial spin-labeling magnetic resonance imaging. Alzheimers Dement. 5(6):454-62, 2009
                            13. Zarei M et al: Regional white matter integrity differentiates between vascular dementia and Alzheimer disease. Stroke. 40(3):773-9, 2009
                            14. Herminghaus S et al: Brain metabolism in Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia assessed by in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Psychiatry Res. 123(3):183-90, 2003
                            15. O'Sullivan M et al: Diffusion tensor MRI correlates with executive dysfunction in patients with ischaemic leukoaraiosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 75(3):441-7, 2004
                            Related Anatomy
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                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                            References
                            Tables

                            Tables

                            KEY FACTS

                            • Terminology

                              • Imaging

                                • Pathology

                                  • Clinical Issues

                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                    • Definitions

                                      • Impairments in cognition and behavior affecting functional status due to pathologic changes resulting from various vascular insults throughout brain
                                      • Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is more comprehensive term incorporating vascular dementia (VaD) as well as other vascular-related cognitive impairment, including mild cognitive impairment due to vascular disease

                                    IMAGING

                                    • General Features

                                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                            PATHOLOGY

                                            • General Features

                                              • Risk Factors

                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                • Presentation

                                                  • Demographics

                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                      Selected References

                                                      1. Eisenmenger LB et al: Advances in PET imaging of degenerative, cerebrovascular, and traumatic causes of dementia. Semin Nucl Med. 46(1):57-87, 2016
                                                      2. Ishii K: PET Approaches for diagnosis of dementia. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 35(11):2030-8, 2014
                                                      3. Iadecola C: The pathobiology of vascular dementia. Neuron. 80(4):844-66, 2013
                                                      4. Jellinger KA: Pathology and pathogenesis of vascular cognitive impairment-a critical update. Front Aging Neurosci. 5:17, 2013
                                                      5. Risacher SL et al: Neuroimaging biomarkers of neurodegenerative diseases and dementia. Semin Neurol. 33(4):386-416, 2013
                                                      6. Heiss WD et al: PET imaging in the differential diagnosis of vascular dementia. J Neurol Sci. 322(1-2):268-73, 2012
                                                      7. Korczyn AD et al: Vascular dementia. J Neurol Sci. 322(1-2):2-10, 2012
                                                      8. Román G et al: Contribution of neuroimaging to the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Arch Med Res. 43(8):671-6, 2012
                                                      9. Schmidt H et al: Genetics of subcortical vascular dementia. Exp Gerontol. 47(11):873-7, 2012
                                                      10. Black SE: Vascular cognitive impairment: epidemiology, subtypes, diagnosis and management. J R Coll Physicians Edinb. 41(1):49-56, 2011
                                                      11. Chavhan GB et al: Principles, techniques, and applications of T2*-based MR imaging and its special applications. Radiographics. 29(5):1433-49, 2009
                                                      12. Schuff N et al: Cerebral blood flow in ischemic vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease, measured by arterial spin-labeling magnetic resonance imaging. Alzheimers Dement. 5(6):454-62, 2009
                                                      13. Zarei M et al: Regional white matter integrity differentiates between vascular dementia and Alzheimer disease. Stroke. 40(3):773-9, 2009
                                                      14. Herminghaus S et al: Brain metabolism in Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia assessed by in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Psychiatry Res. 123(3):183-90, 2003
                                                      15. O'Sullivan M et al: Diffusion tensor MRI correlates with executive dysfunction in patients with ischaemic leukoaraiosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 75(3):441-7, 2004