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Multicystic Dysplastic Kidney
Priyanka Jha, MBBS
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Top Differential Diagnoses

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK)
          • Synonyms

            • Renal cystic dysplasia
            • Dysplastic kidneys
            • Potter type II (bilateral MCDK)
            • Included in spectrum of congenital abnormalities of kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT)
          • Definitions

            • Noncommunicating cysts + dysplastic renal tissue
            • MCDK is essentially nonfunctioning kidney

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Ultrasonographic Findings

              • Imaging Recommendations

                • MR Findings

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                        • Microscopic Features

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Demographics

                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                • Treatment

                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                  • Consider

                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Faruque A et al: Multicystic dysplastic kidney - treat each case on its merits. J Pediatr Surg. 55(11):2497-503, 2020
                                      2. Lei TY et al: Whole-exome sequencing in the evaluation of fetal congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract detected by ultrasonography. Prenat Diagn. 40(10):1290-9, 2020
                                      3. Rehman S et al: Embryology, Kidney, Bladder, and Ureter 2020
                                      4. Song R et al: Sequence variants in the renin-angiotensin system genes are associated with isolated multicystic dysplastic kidney in children. Pediatr Res. ePub, 2020
                                      5. Viswanathan A et al: Screening of renal anomalies in first-degree relatives of children diagnosed with non-syndromic congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract. Clin Exp Nephrol. ePub, 2020
                                      6. Cassart M et al: Prenatal evaluation and postnatal follow-up of ureteral ectopic insertion in multicystic dysplastic kidneys. Fetal Diagn Ther. 45(6):373-80, 2019
                                      7. Gimpel C et al: Imaging of kidney cysts and cystic kidney diseases in children: An International Working Group consensus statement. Radiology. 290(3):769-82, 2019
                                      8. Ishiwa S et al: Association between the clinical presentation of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and gene mutations: an analysis of 66 patients at a single institution. Pediatr Nephrol. 34(8):1457-64, 2019
                                      9. Wong L et al: Diagnosis of fetal multicystic dysplastic kidney in the first trimester of pregnancy by 2-D and 3-D ultrasonography. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 41(10):1397-98, 2019
                                      10. Balasundaram M et al: Predictors of poor neonatal outcomes in prenatally diagnosed multicystic dysplastic kidney disease. J Perinatol. 38(6):658-64, 2018
                                      11. Ji H et al: Magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of foetal multicystic dysplastic kidney. Eur J Radiol. 108:128-32, 2018
                                      12. Maki E et al: Imaging and differential diagnosis of suprarenal masses in the fetus. J Ultrasound Med. 33(5):895-904, 2014
                                      13. Krill A et al: Evaluating compensatory hypertrophy: a growth curve specific for solitary functioning kidneys. J Urol. 188(4 Suppl):1613-7, 2012
                                      14. Hains DS et al: Management and etiology of the unilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney: a review. Pediatr Nephrol. 24(2):233-41, 2009
                                      15. Thomas DF: Prenatally diagnosed urinary tract abnormalities: long-term outcome. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 13(3):189-95, 2008
                                      16. Winyard P et al: Dysplastic kidneys. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 13(3):142-51, 2008
                                      17. Kalyoussef E et al: Segmental multicystic dysplastic kidney in children. Urology. 68(5):1121.e9-11, 2006
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                          • Pathology

                                            • Clinical Issues

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Abbreviations

                                                • Multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK)
                                              • Synonyms

                                                • Renal cystic dysplasia
                                                • Dysplastic kidneys
                                                • Potter type II (bilateral MCDK)
                                                • Included in spectrum of congenital abnormalities of kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT)
                                              • Definitions

                                                • Noncommunicating cysts + dysplastic renal tissue
                                                • MCDK is essentially nonfunctioning kidney

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                    • MR Findings

                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                              • Presentation

                                                                • Demographics

                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                      • Consider

                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Faruque A et al: Multicystic dysplastic kidney - treat each case on its merits. J Pediatr Surg. 55(11):2497-503, 2020
                                                                          2. Lei TY et al: Whole-exome sequencing in the evaluation of fetal congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract detected by ultrasonography. Prenat Diagn. 40(10):1290-9, 2020
                                                                          3. Rehman S et al: Embryology, Kidney, Bladder, and Ureter 2020
                                                                          4. Song R et al: Sequence variants in the renin-angiotensin system genes are associated with isolated multicystic dysplastic kidney in children. Pediatr Res. ePub, 2020
                                                                          5. Viswanathan A et al: Screening of renal anomalies in first-degree relatives of children diagnosed with non-syndromic congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract. Clin Exp Nephrol. ePub, 2020
                                                                          6. Cassart M et al: Prenatal evaluation and postnatal follow-up of ureteral ectopic insertion in multicystic dysplastic kidneys. Fetal Diagn Ther. 45(6):373-80, 2019
                                                                          7. Gimpel C et al: Imaging of kidney cysts and cystic kidney diseases in children: An International Working Group consensus statement. Radiology. 290(3):769-82, 2019
                                                                          8. Ishiwa S et al: Association between the clinical presentation of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and gene mutations: an analysis of 66 patients at a single institution. Pediatr Nephrol. 34(8):1457-64, 2019
                                                                          9. Wong L et al: Diagnosis of fetal multicystic dysplastic kidney in the first trimester of pregnancy by 2-D and 3-D ultrasonography. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 41(10):1397-98, 2019
                                                                          10. Balasundaram M et al: Predictors of poor neonatal outcomes in prenatally diagnosed multicystic dysplastic kidney disease. J Perinatol. 38(6):658-64, 2018
                                                                          11. Ji H et al: Magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of foetal multicystic dysplastic kidney. Eur J Radiol. 108:128-32, 2018
                                                                          12. Maki E et al: Imaging and differential diagnosis of suprarenal masses in the fetus. J Ultrasound Med. 33(5):895-904, 2014
                                                                          13. Krill A et al: Evaluating compensatory hypertrophy: a growth curve specific for solitary functioning kidneys. J Urol. 188(4 Suppl):1613-7, 2012
                                                                          14. Hains DS et al: Management and etiology of the unilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney: a review. Pediatr Nephrol. 24(2):233-41, 2009
                                                                          15. Thomas DF: Prenatally diagnosed urinary tract abnormalities: long-term outcome. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 13(3):189-95, 2008
                                                                          16. Winyard P et al: Dysplastic kidneys. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 13(3):142-51, 2008
                                                                          17. Kalyoussef E et al: Segmental multicystic dysplastic kidney in children. Urology. 68(5):1121.e9-11, 2006