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Multiple Hereditary Exostoses
B.J. Manaster, MD, PhD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Multiple hereditary exostoses (MHE)
          • Synonyms

            • Hereditary osteochondromatosis, hereditary deforming osteochondromatosis, hereditary chondrodysplasia, diaphyseal aclasis, metaphyseal aclasis, hereditary multiple exostoses, hereditary multiple osteochondromas, familial osteochondromatosis
          • Definitions

            • Multiple osteochondromas, either sessile or pedunculated

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Imaging Recommendations

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Consider

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Czajka CM et al: What is the proportion of patients with multiple hereditary exostoses who undergo malignant degeneration? Clin Orthop Relat Res. 473(7):2355-61, 2015
                                          2. Yoong P et al: Multiple hereditary exostoses and ischiofemoral impingement: a case-control study. Skeletal Radiol. 43(9):1225-30, 2014
                                          3. Viala P et al: Bilateral ischiofemoral impingement in a patient with hereditary multiple exostoses. Skeletal Radiol. 41(12):1637-40, 2012
                                          4. Bernard SA et al: Improved differentiation of benign osteochondromas from secondary chondrosarcomas with standardized measurement of cartilage cap at CT and MR imaging. Radiology. 255(3):857-65, 2010
                                          5. El-Fiky TA et al: Hereditary multiple exostoses of the hip. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong). 17(2):161-5, 2009
                                          6. Roach JW et al: Involvement of the spine in patients with multiple hereditary exostoses. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 91(8):1942-8, 2009
                                          7. Sandell LJ: Multiple hereditary exostosis, EXT genes, and skeletal development. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 91 Suppl 4:58-62, 2009
                                          8. Bernard SA et al: Cartilage cap thickness measurement on T2-weighted MRI imaging and the risk of secondary chondrosarcoma in osteochondromas. Presented at Society of Skeletal Radiologists. March, 2008
                                          9. Jäger M et al: Clinical outcome and genotype in patients with hereditary multiple exostoses. J Orthop Res. 25(12):1541-51, 2007
                                          10. Khurana J et al: Osteochondroma. In Fletcher CDM et al: World Health Organization Classification of Tumors: Tumours of Soft Tissue and Bone. Lyon: IARC Press. 234-6, 2002
                                          11. Murphey MD et al: Imaging of osteochondroma: variants and complications with radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 20(5):1407-34, 2000
                                          12. Schmale GA et al: The natural history of hereditary multiple exostoses. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 76(7):986-92, 1994
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Pathology

                                                • Clinical Issues

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Abbreviations

                                                    • Multiple hereditary exostoses (MHE)
                                                  • Synonyms

                                                    • Hereditary osteochondromatosis, hereditary deforming osteochondromatosis, hereditary chondrodysplasia, diaphyseal aclasis, metaphyseal aclasis, hereditary multiple exostoses, hereditary multiple osteochondromas, familial osteochondromatosis
                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • Multiple osteochondromas, either sessile or pedunculated

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                      • Radiographic Findings

                                                        • CT Findings

                                                          • MR Findings

                                                            • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                              • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                                  • General Features

                                                                    • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                      • Microscopic Features

                                                                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                        • Presentation

                                                                          • Demographics

                                                                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                              • Treatment

                                                                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                • Consider

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Czajka CM et al: What is the proportion of patients with multiple hereditary exostoses who undergo malignant degeneration? Clin Orthop Relat Res. 473(7):2355-61, 2015
                                                                                  2. Yoong P et al: Multiple hereditary exostoses and ischiofemoral impingement: a case-control study. Skeletal Radiol. 43(9):1225-30, 2014
                                                                                  3. Viala P et al: Bilateral ischiofemoral impingement in a patient with hereditary multiple exostoses. Skeletal Radiol. 41(12):1637-40, 2012
                                                                                  4. Bernard SA et al: Improved differentiation of benign osteochondromas from secondary chondrosarcomas with standardized measurement of cartilage cap at CT and MR imaging. Radiology. 255(3):857-65, 2010
                                                                                  5. El-Fiky TA et al: Hereditary multiple exostoses of the hip. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong). 17(2):161-5, 2009
                                                                                  6. Roach JW et al: Involvement of the spine in patients with multiple hereditary exostoses. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 91(8):1942-8, 2009
                                                                                  7. Sandell LJ: Multiple hereditary exostosis, EXT genes, and skeletal development. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 91 Suppl 4:58-62, 2009
                                                                                  8. Bernard SA et al: Cartilage cap thickness measurement on T2-weighted MRI imaging and the risk of secondary chondrosarcoma in osteochondromas. Presented at Society of Skeletal Radiologists. March, 2008
                                                                                  9. Jäger M et al: Clinical outcome and genotype in patients with hereditary multiple exostoses. J Orthop Res. 25(12):1541-51, 2007
                                                                                  10. Khurana J et al: Osteochondroma. In Fletcher CDM et al: World Health Organization Classification of Tumors: Tumours of Soft Tissue and Bone. Lyon: IARC Press. 234-6, 2002
                                                                                  11. Murphey MD et al: Imaging of osteochondroma: variants and complications with radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 20(5):1407-34, 2000
                                                                                  12. Schmale GA et al: The natural history of hereditary multiple exostoses. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 76(7):986-92, 1994