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Multiple Sclerosis
Miral D. Jhaveri, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Top Differential Diagnoses

      • Clinical Issues

        • Diagnostic Checklist

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Multiple sclerosis (MS)
          • Definitions

            • Probable autoimmune-mediated demyelination in which environmental factors act upon genetically susceptible individuals

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • CT Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                    PATHOLOGY

                    • General Features

                      • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                          • Microscopic Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Roosendaal SD et al: Imaging phenotypes in multiple sclerosis. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 25(1):83-96, 2015
                                      2. Aliaga ES et al: MRI mimics of multiple sclerosis. Handb Clin Neurol. 122:291-316, 2014
                                      3. Ciccarelli O et al: Pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis: insights from molecular and metabolic imaging. Lancet Neurol. 13(8):807-22, 2014
                                      4. Fernandez O et al: Biomarkers in multiple sclerosis: an update for 2014. Rev Neurol. 58(12):553-70, 2014
                                      5. Hardy TA et al: Baló's concentric sclerosis. Lancet Neurol. 13(7):740-6, 2014
                                      6. Miller TR et al: Advances in multiple sclerosis and its variants: conventional and newer imaging techniques. Radiol Clin North Am. 52(2):321-36, 2014
                                      7. Steenwijk MD et al: What explains gray matter atrophy in long-standing multiple sclerosis? Radiology. 272(3):832-42, 2014
                                      8. Klawiter EC: Current and new directions in MRI in multiple sclerosis. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 19(4 Multiple Sclerosis):1058-73, 2013
                                      9. Filippi M et al: MR imaging of multiple sclerosis. Radiology. 259(3):659-81, 2011
                                      10. Polman CH et al: Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2010 revisions to the McDonald criteria. Ann Neurol. 69(2):292-302, 2011
                                      11. Calabrese M et al: Cortical lesions in primary progressive multiple sclerosis: a 2-year longitudinal MR study. Neurology. 72(15):1330-6, 2009
                                      12. Filippi M et al: Conventional MRI in multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimaging. 17 Suppl 1:3S-9S, 2007
                                      13. Janardhan V et al: Multiple sclerosis: hyperintense lesions in the brain on nonenhanced T1-weighted MR images evidenced as areas of T1 shortening. Radiology. 244(3):823-31, 2007
                                      14. Traboulsee AL et al: The role of MRI in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Adv Neurol. 98:125-46, 2006
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                          • Clinical Issues

                                            • Diagnostic Checklist

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Abbreviations

                                                • Multiple sclerosis (MS)
                                              • Definitions

                                                • Probable autoimmune-mediated demyelination in which environmental factors act upon genetically susceptible individuals

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • CT Findings

                                                  • MR Findings

                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                              • Microscopic Features

                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                • Presentation

                                                                  • Demographics

                                                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                      • Treatment

                                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Roosendaal SD et al: Imaging phenotypes in multiple sclerosis. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 25(1):83-96, 2015
                                                                          2. Aliaga ES et al: MRI mimics of multiple sclerosis. Handb Clin Neurol. 122:291-316, 2014
                                                                          3. Ciccarelli O et al: Pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis: insights from molecular and metabolic imaging. Lancet Neurol. 13(8):807-22, 2014
                                                                          4. Fernandez O et al: Biomarkers in multiple sclerosis: an update for 2014. Rev Neurol. 58(12):553-70, 2014
                                                                          5. Hardy TA et al: Baló's concentric sclerosis. Lancet Neurol. 13(7):740-6, 2014
                                                                          6. Miller TR et al: Advances in multiple sclerosis and its variants: conventional and newer imaging techniques. Radiol Clin North Am. 52(2):321-36, 2014
                                                                          7. Steenwijk MD et al: What explains gray matter atrophy in long-standing multiple sclerosis? Radiology. 272(3):832-42, 2014
                                                                          8. Klawiter EC: Current and new directions in MRI in multiple sclerosis. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 19(4 Multiple Sclerosis):1058-73, 2013
                                                                          9. Filippi M et al: MR imaging of multiple sclerosis. Radiology. 259(3):659-81, 2011
                                                                          10. Polman CH et al: Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2010 revisions to the McDonald criteria. Ann Neurol. 69(2):292-302, 2011
                                                                          11. Calabrese M et al: Cortical lesions in primary progressive multiple sclerosis: a 2-year longitudinal MR study. Neurology. 72(15):1330-6, 2009
                                                                          12. Filippi M et al: Conventional MRI in multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimaging. 17 Suppl 1:3S-9S, 2007
                                                                          13. Janardhan V et al: Multiple sclerosis: hyperintense lesions in the brain on nonenhanced T1-weighted MR images evidenced as areas of T1 shortening. Radiology. 244(3):823-31, 2007
                                                                          14. Traboulsee AL et al: The role of MRI in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Adv Neurol. 98:125-46, 2006