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Multiple Sclerosis
Kevin R. Moore, MD; Miral D. Jhaveri, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Multiple sclerosis (MS)
            • Definitions

              • Probable autoimmune-mediated demyelination in which environmental factors act upon genetically susceptible individuals

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                        Selected References

                                        1. De Meo E et al: Dynamic gray matter volume changes in pediatric multiple sclerosis: a 3.5 year MRI study. Neurology. 92(15):e1709-23, 2019
                                        2. Makhani N et al: Oligoclonal bands increase the specificity of MRI criteria to predict multiple sclerosis in children with radiologically isolated syndrome. Mult Scler J Exp Transl Clin. 5(1):2055217319836664, 2019
                                        3. Fadda G et al: MRI and laboratory features and the performance of international criteria in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis in children and adolescents: a prospective cohort study. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2(3):191-204, 2018
                                        4. Otallah S et al: Pediatric multiple sclerosis: an update. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 18(11):76, 2018
                                        5. Ruet A: Update on pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis. Rev Neurol (Paris). 174(6):398-407, 2018
                                        6. Thompson AJ et al: Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: 2017 revisions of the McDonald criteria. Lancet Neurol. 17(2):162-73, 2018
                                        7. Yeshokumar AK et al: Pediatric multiple sclerosis. Curr Opin Neurol. 30(3):216-21, 2017
                                        8. Waldman A et al: Pediatric multiple sclerosis: clinical features and outcome. Neurology. 87(9 Suppl 2):S74-81, 2016
                                        9. Roosendaal SD et al: Imaging phenotypes in multiple sclerosis. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 25(1):83-96, 2015
                                        10. Aliaga ES et al: MRI mimics of multiple sclerosis. Handb Clin Neurol. 122:291-316, 2014
                                        11. Ciccarelli O et al: Pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis: insights from molecular and metabolic imaging. Lancet Neurol. 13(8):807-22, 2014
                                        12. Fernandez O et al: Biomarkers in multiple sclerosis: an update for 2014. Rev Neurol. 58(12):553-70, 2014
                                        13. Hardy TA et al: Baló's concentric sclerosis. Lancet Neurol. 13(7):740-6, 2014
                                        14. Miller TR et al: Advances in multiple sclerosis and its variants: conventional and newer imaging techniques. Radiol Clin North Am. 52(2):321-36, 2014
                                        15. Steenwijk MD et al: What explains gray matter atrophy in long-standing multiple sclerosis? Radiology. 272(3):832-42, 2014
                                        16. Klawiter EC: Current and new directions in MRI in multiple sclerosis. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 19(4 Multiple Sclerosis):1058-73, 2013
                                        17. Filippi M et al: MR imaging of multiple sclerosis. Radiology. 259(3):659-81, 2011
                                        18. Polman CH et al: Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2010 revisions to the McDonald criteria. Ann Neurol. 69(2):292-302, 2011
                                        19. Calabrese M et al: Cortical lesions in primary progressive multiple sclerosis: a 2-year longitudinal MR study. Neurology. 72(15):1330-6, 2009
                                        20. Filippi M et al: Conventional MRI in multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimaging. 17 Suppl 1:3S-9S, 2007
                                        21. Janardhan V et al: Multiple sclerosis: hyperintense lesions in the brain on nonenhanced T1-weighted MR images evidenced as areas of T1 shortening. Radiology. 244(3):823-31, 2007
                                        22. Traboulsee AL et al: The role of MRI in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Adv Neurol. 98:125-46, 2006
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Terminology

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                              • Clinical Issues

                                                • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Abbreviations

                                                    • Multiple sclerosis (MS)
                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • Probable autoimmune-mediated demyelination in which environmental factors act upon genetically susceptible individuals

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                  • Microscopic Features

                                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                    • Presentation

                                                                      • Demographics

                                                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                          • Treatment

                                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. De Meo E et al: Dynamic gray matter volume changes in pediatric multiple sclerosis: a 3.5 year MRI study. Neurology. 92(15):e1709-23, 2019
                                                                              2. Makhani N et al: Oligoclonal bands increase the specificity of MRI criteria to predict multiple sclerosis in children with radiologically isolated syndrome. Mult Scler J Exp Transl Clin. 5(1):2055217319836664, 2019
                                                                              3. Fadda G et al: MRI and laboratory features and the performance of international criteria in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis in children and adolescents: a prospective cohort study. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2(3):191-204, 2018
                                                                              4. Otallah S et al: Pediatric multiple sclerosis: an update. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 18(11):76, 2018
                                                                              5. Ruet A: Update on pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis. Rev Neurol (Paris). 174(6):398-407, 2018
                                                                              6. Thompson AJ et al: Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: 2017 revisions of the McDonald criteria. Lancet Neurol. 17(2):162-73, 2018
                                                                              7. Yeshokumar AK et al: Pediatric multiple sclerosis. Curr Opin Neurol. 30(3):216-21, 2017
                                                                              8. Waldman A et al: Pediatric multiple sclerosis: clinical features and outcome. Neurology. 87(9 Suppl 2):S74-81, 2016
                                                                              9. Roosendaal SD et al: Imaging phenotypes in multiple sclerosis. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 25(1):83-96, 2015
                                                                              10. Aliaga ES et al: MRI mimics of multiple sclerosis. Handb Clin Neurol. 122:291-316, 2014
                                                                              11. Ciccarelli O et al: Pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis: insights from molecular and metabolic imaging. Lancet Neurol. 13(8):807-22, 2014
                                                                              12. Fernandez O et al: Biomarkers in multiple sclerosis: an update for 2014. Rev Neurol. 58(12):553-70, 2014
                                                                              13. Hardy TA et al: Baló's concentric sclerosis. Lancet Neurol. 13(7):740-6, 2014
                                                                              14. Miller TR et al: Advances in multiple sclerosis and its variants: conventional and newer imaging techniques. Radiol Clin North Am. 52(2):321-36, 2014
                                                                              15. Steenwijk MD et al: What explains gray matter atrophy in long-standing multiple sclerosis? Radiology. 272(3):832-42, 2014
                                                                              16. Klawiter EC: Current and new directions in MRI in multiple sclerosis. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 19(4 Multiple Sclerosis):1058-73, 2013
                                                                              17. Filippi M et al: MR imaging of multiple sclerosis. Radiology. 259(3):659-81, 2011
                                                                              18. Polman CH et al: Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2010 revisions to the McDonald criteria. Ann Neurol. 69(2):292-302, 2011
                                                                              19. Calabrese M et al: Cortical lesions in primary progressive multiple sclerosis: a 2-year longitudinal MR study. Neurology. 72(15):1330-6, 2009
                                                                              20. Filippi M et al: Conventional MRI in multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimaging. 17 Suppl 1:3S-9S, 2007
                                                                              21. Janardhan V et al: Multiple sclerosis: hyperintense lesions in the brain on nonenhanced T1-weighted MR images evidenced as areas of T1 shortening. Radiology. 244(3):823-31, 2007
                                                                              22. Traboulsee AL et al: The role of MRI in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Adv Neurol. 98:125-46, 2006