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Multiple Sclerosis
Miral D. Jhaveri, MD, MBA
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • Multiple sclerosis (MS)
              • Definitions

                • Idiopathic chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of CNS

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • PET With Translocator Protein Radioligands

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Gaitán MI et al: SWAN-Venule: an optimized MRI technique to detect the central vein sign in MS plaques. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 41(3):456-60, 2020
                                            2. Sastre-Garriga J et al: MAGNIMS consensus recommendations on the use of brain and spinal cord atrophy measures in clinical practice. Nat Rev Neurol. 16(3):171-82, 2020
                                            3. do Amaral LLF et al: Gadolinium-enhanced susceptibility-weighted imaging in multiple sclerosis: optimizing the recognition of active plaques for different mr imaging sequences. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 40(4):614-9, 2019
                                            4. Filippi M et al: Association between pathological and MRI findings in multiple sclerosis. Lancet Neurol. 18(2):198-210, 2019
                                            5. Hartung HP et al: Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: revisions of the McDonald criteria 2017 - continuity and change. Curr Opin Neurol. 32(3):327-37, 2019
                                            6. Maranzano J et al: Comparison of multiple sclerosis cortical lesion types detected by multicontrast 3T and 7T MRI. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 40(7):1162-9, 2019
                                            7. Suthiphosuwan S et al: The central vein sign in radiologically isolated syndrome. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 40(5):776-83, 2019
                                            8. Zipp F et al: Implementing the 2017 McDonald criteria for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Nat Rev Neurol. 15(8):441-5, 2019
                                            9. Filippi M et al: MRI in multiple sclerosis: what is changing? Curr Opin Neurol. 31(4):386-95, 2018
                                            10. Inglese M et al: MRI in multiple sclerosis: clinical and research update. Curr Opin Neurol. 31(3):249-55, 2018
                                            11. Thompson AJ et al: Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: 2017 revisions of the McDonald criteria. Lancet Neurol. 17(2):162-73, 2018
                                            12. Castellaro M et al: Heterogeneity of cortical lesion susceptibility mapping in multiple sclerosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 38(6):1087-95, 2017
                                            13. Filippi M et al: MRI criteria for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: MAGNIMS consensus guidelines. Lancet Neurol. 15(3):292-303, 2016
                                            14. Roosendaal SD et al: Imaging phenotypes in multiple sclerosis. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 25(1):83-96, 2015
                                            15. Aliaga ES et al: MRI mimics of multiple sclerosis. Handb Clin Neurol. 122:291-316, 2014
                                            16. Ciccarelli O et al: Pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis: insights from molecular and metabolic imaging. Lancet Neurol. 13(8):807-22, 2014
                                            17. Fernandez O et al: Biomarkers in multiple sclerosis: an update for 2014. Rev Neurol. 58(12):553-70, 2014
                                            18. Hardy TA et al: Baló's concentric sclerosis. Lancet Neurol. 13(7):740-6, 2014
                                            19. Miller TR et al: Advances in multiple sclerosis and its variants: conventional and newer imaging techniques. Radiol Clin North Am. 52(2):321-36, 2014
                                            20. Steenwijk MD et al: What explains gray matter atrophy in long-standing multiple sclerosis? Radiology. 272(3):832-42, 2014
                                            21. Klawiter EC: Current and new directions in MRI in multiple sclerosis. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 19(4 Multiple Sclerosis):1058-73, 2013
                                            22. Polman CH et al: Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2010 revisions to the McDonald criteria. Ann Neurol. 69(2):292-302, 2011
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Terminology

                                              • Imaging

                                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                  • Pathology

                                                    • Clinical Issues

                                                      • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                                        • Abbreviations

                                                          • Multiple sclerosis (MS)
                                                        • Definitions

                                                          • Idiopathic chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of CNS

                                                        IMAGING

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • CT Findings

                                                            • MR Findings

                                                              • PET With Translocator Protein Radioligands

                                                                • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                  DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                    PATHOLOGY

                                                                    • General Features

                                                                      • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                          • Microscopic Features

                                                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                            • Presentation

                                                                              • Demographics

                                                                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                  • Treatment

                                                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Gaitán MI et al: SWAN-Venule: an optimized MRI technique to detect the central vein sign in MS plaques. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 41(3):456-60, 2020
                                                                                      2. Sastre-Garriga J et al: MAGNIMS consensus recommendations on the use of brain and spinal cord atrophy measures in clinical practice. Nat Rev Neurol. 16(3):171-82, 2020
                                                                                      3. do Amaral LLF et al: Gadolinium-enhanced susceptibility-weighted imaging in multiple sclerosis: optimizing the recognition of active plaques for different mr imaging sequences. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 40(4):614-9, 2019
                                                                                      4. Filippi M et al: Association between pathological and MRI findings in multiple sclerosis. Lancet Neurol. 18(2):198-210, 2019
                                                                                      5. Hartung HP et al: Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: revisions of the McDonald criteria 2017 - continuity and change. Curr Opin Neurol. 32(3):327-37, 2019
                                                                                      6. Maranzano J et al: Comparison of multiple sclerosis cortical lesion types detected by multicontrast 3T and 7T MRI. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 40(7):1162-9, 2019
                                                                                      7. Suthiphosuwan S et al: The central vein sign in radiologically isolated syndrome. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 40(5):776-83, 2019
                                                                                      8. Zipp F et al: Implementing the 2017 McDonald criteria for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Nat Rev Neurol. 15(8):441-5, 2019
                                                                                      9. Filippi M et al: MRI in multiple sclerosis: what is changing? Curr Opin Neurol. 31(4):386-95, 2018
                                                                                      10. Inglese M et al: MRI in multiple sclerosis: clinical and research update. Curr Opin Neurol. 31(3):249-55, 2018
                                                                                      11. Thompson AJ et al: Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: 2017 revisions of the McDonald criteria. Lancet Neurol. 17(2):162-73, 2018
                                                                                      12. Castellaro M et al: Heterogeneity of cortical lesion susceptibility mapping in multiple sclerosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 38(6):1087-95, 2017
                                                                                      13. Filippi M et al: MRI criteria for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: MAGNIMS consensus guidelines. Lancet Neurol. 15(3):292-303, 2016
                                                                                      14. Roosendaal SD et al: Imaging phenotypes in multiple sclerosis. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 25(1):83-96, 2015
                                                                                      15. Aliaga ES et al: MRI mimics of multiple sclerosis. Handb Clin Neurol. 122:291-316, 2014
                                                                                      16. Ciccarelli O et al: Pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis: insights from molecular and metabolic imaging. Lancet Neurol. 13(8):807-22, 2014
                                                                                      17. Fernandez O et al: Biomarkers in multiple sclerosis: an update for 2014. Rev Neurol. 58(12):553-70, 2014
                                                                                      18. Hardy TA et al: Baló's concentric sclerosis. Lancet Neurol. 13(7):740-6, 2014
                                                                                      19. Miller TR et al: Advances in multiple sclerosis and its variants: conventional and newer imaging techniques. Radiol Clin North Am. 52(2):321-36, 2014
                                                                                      20. Steenwijk MD et al: What explains gray matter atrophy in long-standing multiple sclerosis? Radiology. 272(3):832-42, 2014
                                                                                      21. Klawiter EC: Current and new directions in MRI in multiple sclerosis. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 19(4 Multiple Sclerosis):1058-73, 2013
                                                                                      22. Polman CH et al: Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2010 revisions to the McDonald criteria. Ann Neurol. 69(2):292-302, 2011