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Myositis Ossificans/Heterotopic Ossification
B.J. Manaster, MD, PhD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Pathology

        • Diagnostic Checklist

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Myositis ossificans (MO)
            • Heterotopic ossification (HO)
          • Definitions

            • Heterotopic formation of bone and cartilage in soft tissue: Benign, solitary, self-limiting
            • Term myositis is misleading
              • Most frequently occurs in muscle
              • May also be found in fascia, tendons, and fat
              • Heterotopic ossification is more correct term and is same entity; however, myositis ossificans continues to be in popular usage at this time

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Microscopic Features

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Demographics

                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                • Treatment

                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                  • Consider

                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Demir MK et al: Case 118: proliferative myositis. Radiology. 244(2):613-6, 2007
                                      2. Balboni TA et al: Heterotopic ossification: pathophysiology, clinical features, and the role of radiotherapy for prophylaxis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 65(5):1289-99, 2006
                                      3. Eid K et al: Systemic effects of severe trauma on the function and apoptosis of human skeletal cells. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 88(10):1394-400, 2006
                                      4. Higo T et al: The incidence of heterotopic ossification after cementless total hip arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 21(6):852-6, 2006
                                      5. Hudson SJ et al: Heterotopic ossification--a long-term consequence of prolonged immobility. Crit Care. 10(6):174, 2006
                                      6. McCarthy EF et al: Heterotopic ossification: a review. Skeletal Radiol. 34(10):609-19, 2005
                                      7. Kransdorf MJ et al: Myositis ossificans: MR appearance with radiologic-pathologic correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 157(6):1243-8, 1991
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Pathology

                                            • Diagnostic Checklist

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Abbreviations

                                                • Myositis ossificans (MO)
                                                • Heterotopic ossification (HO)
                                              • Definitions

                                                • Heterotopic formation of bone and cartilage in soft tissue: Benign, solitary, self-limiting
                                                • Term myositis is misleading
                                                  • Most frequently occurs in muscle
                                                  • May also be found in fascia, tendons, and fat
                                                  • Heterotopic ossification is more correct term and is same entity; however, myositis ossificans continues to be in popular usage at this time

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • Radiographic Findings

                                                  • CT Findings

                                                    • MR Findings

                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                              • Presentation

                                                                • Demographics

                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                      • Consider

                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Demir MK et al: Case 118: proliferative myositis. Radiology. 244(2):613-6, 2007
                                                                          2. Balboni TA et al: Heterotopic ossification: pathophysiology, clinical features, and the role of radiotherapy for prophylaxis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 65(5):1289-99, 2006
                                                                          3. Eid K et al: Systemic effects of severe trauma on the function and apoptosis of human skeletal cells. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 88(10):1394-400, 2006
                                                                          4. Higo T et al: The incidence of heterotopic ossification after cementless total hip arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 21(6):852-6, 2006
                                                                          5. Hudson SJ et al: Heterotopic ossification--a long-term consequence of prolonged immobility. Crit Care. 10(6):174, 2006
                                                                          6. McCarthy EF et al: Heterotopic ossification: a review. Skeletal Radiol. 34(10):609-19, 2005
                                                                          7. Kransdorf MJ et al: Myositis ossificans: MR appearance with radiologic-pathologic correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 157(6):1243-8, 1991