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Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
Luke N. Ledbetter, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC)
            • Synonyms

              • Lymphoepithelioma (undifferentiated nonkeratinizing subtype)
            • Definitions

              • Primary mucosal malignancy arising in nasopharynx, most strongly associated with EBV infection

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          • Reporting Tips

                                            Selected References

                                            1. King AD et al: Detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by MR imaging: diagnostic accuracy of MRI compared with endoscopy and endoscopic biopsy based on long-term follow-up. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 36(12):2380-5, 2015
                                            2. Lan M et al: Prognostic value of cervical nodal necrosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: analysis of 1800 patients with positive cervical nodal metastasis at MR imaging. Radiology. 276(2):536-44, 2015
                                            3. Lee AW et al: Management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: current practice and future perspective. J Clin Oncol. 33(29):3356-64, 2015
                                            4. Zhang GY et al: Prognostic value of grading masticator space involvement in nasopharyngeal carcinoma according to MR imaging findings. Radiology. 273(1):136-43, 2014
                                            5. Chan AT: Current treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Eur J Cancer. 47 Suppl 3:S302-3, 2011
                                            6. Roy C et al: Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of nasopharynx: an extremely rare variety of tumour of nasopharynx. J Indian Med Assoc. 109(5):343-4, 2011
                                            7. Xie CM et al: Computed tomographic findings of skull base bony changes after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: implications for local recurrence. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 40(4):300-10, 2011
                                            8. Marcus KJ et al: Head and neck carcinomas across the age spectrum: epidemiology, therapy, and late effects. Semin Radiat Oncol. 20(1):52-7, 2010
                                            9. Maxwell JH et al: HPV-positive/p16-positive/EBV-negative nasopharyngeal carcinoma in white North Americans. Head Neck. 32(5):562-7, 2010
                                            10. Chan AT et al: Nasopharyngeal cancer: ESMO clinical recommendations for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol. 20 Suppl 4:123-5, 2009
                                            11. Yu WM et al: Incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Chinese immigrants, compared with Chinese in China and South East Asia: review. J Laryngol Otol. 123(10):1067-74, 2009
                                            12. Chong VF et al: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Eur J Radiol. 66(3):437-47, 2008
                                            13. Forastiere AA: Chemotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced head and neck cancer. J Surg Oncol. 97(8):701-7, 2008
                                            14. Liu T et al: FDG-PET, CT, MRI for diagnosis of local residual or recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma, which one is the best? A systematic review. Radiother Oncol. 85(3):327-35, 2007
                                            15. Stambuk HE et al: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: recognizing the radiographic features in children. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 26(6):1575-9, 2005
                                            16. King AD et al: In vivo proton MR spectroscopy of primary and nodal nasopharyngeal carcinoma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 25(3):484-90, 2004
                                            17. Roh JL et al: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma with skull base invasion: a necessity of staging subdivision. Am J Otolaryngol. 25(1):26-32, 2004
                                            18. Kim YI et al: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: posttreatment changes of imaging findings. Am J Otolaryngol. 24(4):224-30, 2003
                                            19. Lim LH et al: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in young patients. Int J Clin Pract. 57(10):871-4, 2003
                                            20. Punwaney R et al: Human papillomavirus may be common within nasopharyngeal carcinoma of Caucasian Americans: investigation of Epstein-Barr virus and human papillomavirus in eastern and western nasopharyngeal carcinoma using ligation-dependent polymerase chain reaction. Head Neck. 21(1):21-9, 1999
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Terminology

                                              • Imaging

                                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                  • Pathology

                                                    • Clinical Issues

                                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                                      • Abbreviations

                                                        • Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC)
                                                      • Synonyms

                                                        • Lymphoepithelioma (undifferentiated nonkeratinizing subtype)
                                                      • Definitions

                                                        • Primary mucosal malignancy arising in nasopharynx, most strongly associated with EBV infection

                                                      IMAGING

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • CT Findings

                                                          • MR Findings

                                                            • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                                  • General Features

                                                                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                        • Presentation

                                                                          • Demographics

                                                                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                              • Treatment

                                                                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                • Consider

                                                                                  • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                    • Reporting Tips

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. King AD et al: Detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by MR imaging: diagnostic accuracy of MRI compared with endoscopy and endoscopic biopsy based on long-term follow-up. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 36(12):2380-5, 2015
                                                                                      2. Lan M et al: Prognostic value of cervical nodal necrosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: analysis of 1800 patients with positive cervical nodal metastasis at MR imaging. Radiology. 276(2):536-44, 2015
                                                                                      3. Lee AW et al: Management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: current practice and future perspective. J Clin Oncol. 33(29):3356-64, 2015
                                                                                      4. Zhang GY et al: Prognostic value of grading masticator space involvement in nasopharyngeal carcinoma according to MR imaging findings. Radiology. 273(1):136-43, 2014
                                                                                      5. Chan AT: Current treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Eur J Cancer. 47 Suppl 3:S302-3, 2011
                                                                                      6. Roy C et al: Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of nasopharynx: an extremely rare variety of tumour of nasopharynx. J Indian Med Assoc. 109(5):343-4, 2011
                                                                                      7. Xie CM et al: Computed tomographic findings of skull base bony changes after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: implications for local recurrence. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 40(4):300-10, 2011
                                                                                      8. Marcus KJ et al: Head and neck carcinomas across the age spectrum: epidemiology, therapy, and late effects. Semin Radiat Oncol. 20(1):52-7, 2010
                                                                                      9. Maxwell JH et al: HPV-positive/p16-positive/EBV-negative nasopharyngeal carcinoma in white North Americans. Head Neck. 32(5):562-7, 2010
                                                                                      10. Chan AT et al: Nasopharyngeal cancer: ESMO clinical recommendations for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol. 20 Suppl 4:123-5, 2009
                                                                                      11. Yu WM et al: Incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Chinese immigrants, compared with Chinese in China and South East Asia: review. J Laryngol Otol. 123(10):1067-74, 2009
                                                                                      12. Chong VF et al: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Eur J Radiol. 66(3):437-47, 2008
                                                                                      13. Forastiere AA: Chemotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced head and neck cancer. J Surg Oncol. 97(8):701-7, 2008
                                                                                      14. Liu T et al: FDG-PET, CT, MRI for diagnosis of local residual or recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma, which one is the best? A systematic review. Radiother Oncol. 85(3):327-35, 2007
                                                                                      15. Stambuk HE et al: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: recognizing the radiographic features in children. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 26(6):1575-9, 2005
                                                                                      16. King AD et al: In vivo proton MR spectroscopy of primary and nodal nasopharyngeal carcinoma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 25(3):484-90, 2004
                                                                                      17. Roh JL et al: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma with skull base invasion: a necessity of staging subdivision. Am J Otolaryngol. 25(1):26-32, 2004
                                                                                      18. Kim YI et al: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: posttreatment changes of imaging findings. Am J Otolaryngol. 24(4):224-30, 2003
                                                                                      19. Lim LH et al: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in young patients. Int J Clin Pract. 57(10):871-4, 2003
                                                                                      20. Punwaney R et al: Human papillomavirus may be common within nasopharyngeal carcinoma of Caucasian Americans: investigation of Epstein-Barr virus and human papillomavirus in eastern and western nasopharyngeal carcinoma using ligation-dependent polymerase chain reaction. Head Neck. 21(1):21-9, 1999