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Nephrocalcinosis
Katherine To'o, MD; Aya Kamaya, MD, FSRU, FSAR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Diagnostic Checklist

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Nephrocalcinosis (NC)
              • Medullary sponge kidney (MSK)
            • Synonyms

              • Medullary NC
              • Cortical NC
            • Definitions

              • Calcification of renal parenchyma

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Hsi RS et al: A spectrum: nephrocalcinosis-nephrolithiasis. J Urol. 194(5):1188-9, 2015
                                          2. Strauss SB et al: Primary hyperoxaluria: spectrum of clinical and imaging findings. Pediatr Radiol. 47(1):96-103, 2017
                                          3. Boyce AM et al: Ultrasound is superior to computed tomography for assessment of medullary nephrocalcinosis in hypoparathyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 98(3):989-94, 2013
                                          4. Koraishy FM et al: CT urography for the diagnosis of medullary sponge kidney. Am J Nephrol. 39(2):165-70, 2014
                                          5. Lin CC et al: Renal sonographic findings of type I glycogen storage disease in infancy and early childhood. Pediatr Radiol. 35(8):786-91, 2005
                                          6. Aziz S et al: Rapidly developing nephrocalcinosis in a patient with end-stage liver disease who received a domino liver transplant from a patient with known congenital oxalosis. J Ultrasound Med. 24(10):1449-52, 2005
                                          7. Diallo O et al: Type 1 primary hyperoxaluria in pediatric patients: renal sonographic patterns. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 183(6):1767-70, 2004
                                          8. Hoppe B et al: Diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in patients with secondary hyperoxaluria. Front Biosci. 8:e437-43, 2003
                                          9. Peacock M: Primary hyperparathyroidism and the kidney: biochemical and clinical spectrum. J Bone Miner Res. 17 Suppl 2:N87-94, 2002
                                          10. Kim YG et al: Medullary nephrocalcinosis associated with long-term furosemide abuse in adults. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 16(12):2303-9, 2001
                                          11. Sayer JA et al: Diagnosis and clinical biochemistry of inherited tubulopathies. Ann Clin Biochem. 38(Pt 5):459-70, 2001
                                          12. Unwin RJ et al: The renal tubular acidoses. J R Soc Med. 94(5):221-5, 2001
                                          13. Schepens D et al: Images in nephrology. Renal cortical nephrocalcinosis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 15(7):1080-2, 2000
                                          14. Campfield T et al: Nephrocalcinosis in premature infants: variability in ultrasound detection. J Perinatol. 19(7):498-500, 1999
                                          15. Chen MY et al: Abnormal calcification on plain radiographs of the abdomen. Crit Rev Diagn Imaging. 40(2-3):63-202, 1999
                                          16. Dyer RB et al: Abnormal calcifications in the urinary tract. Radiographics. 18(6):1405-24, 1998
                                          17. al-Murrani B et al: Echogenic rings--an ultrasound sign of early nephrocalcinosis. Clin Radiol. 44(1):49-51, 1991
                                          18. Toyoda K et al: Hyperechoic medulla of the kidneys. Radiology. 173(2):431-4, 1989
                                          19. Curry NS et al: Renal medullary "rings": possible CT manifestation of hypercalcemia. Urol Radiol. 6(1):48-50, 1984
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Pathology

                                                  • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                                    • Abbreviations

                                                      • Nephrocalcinosis (NC)
                                                      • Medullary sponge kidney (MSK)
                                                    • Synonyms

                                                      • Medullary NC
                                                      • Cortical NC
                                                    • Definitions

                                                      • Calcification of renal parenchyma

                                                    IMAGING

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                        • Radiographic Findings

                                                          • CT Findings

                                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                                • General Features

                                                                  • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                    • Microscopic Features

                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                              • Consider

                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Hsi RS et al: A spectrum: nephrocalcinosis-nephrolithiasis. J Urol. 194(5):1188-9, 2015
                                                                                  2. Strauss SB et al: Primary hyperoxaluria: spectrum of clinical and imaging findings. Pediatr Radiol. 47(1):96-103, 2017
                                                                                  3. Boyce AM et al: Ultrasound is superior to computed tomography for assessment of medullary nephrocalcinosis in hypoparathyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 98(3):989-94, 2013
                                                                                  4. Koraishy FM et al: CT urography for the diagnosis of medullary sponge kidney. Am J Nephrol. 39(2):165-70, 2014
                                                                                  5. Lin CC et al: Renal sonographic findings of type I glycogen storage disease in infancy and early childhood. Pediatr Radiol. 35(8):786-91, 2005
                                                                                  6. Aziz S et al: Rapidly developing nephrocalcinosis in a patient with end-stage liver disease who received a domino liver transplant from a patient with known congenital oxalosis. J Ultrasound Med. 24(10):1449-52, 2005
                                                                                  7. Diallo O et al: Type 1 primary hyperoxaluria in pediatric patients: renal sonographic patterns. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 183(6):1767-70, 2004
                                                                                  8. Hoppe B et al: Diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in patients with secondary hyperoxaluria. Front Biosci. 8:e437-43, 2003
                                                                                  9. Peacock M: Primary hyperparathyroidism and the kidney: biochemical and clinical spectrum. J Bone Miner Res. 17 Suppl 2:N87-94, 2002
                                                                                  10. Kim YG et al: Medullary nephrocalcinosis associated with long-term furosemide abuse in adults. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 16(12):2303-9, 2001
                                                                                  11. Sayer JA et al: Diagnosis and clinical biochemistry of inherited tubulopathies. Ann Clin Biochem. 38(Pt 5):459-70, 2001
                                                                                  12. Unwin RJ et al: The renal tubular acidoses. J R Soc Med. 94(5):221-5, 2001
                                                                                  13. Schepens D et al: Images in nephrology. Renal cortical nephrocalcinosis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 15(7):1080-2, 2000
                                                                                  14. Campfield T et al: Nephrocalcinosis in premature infants: variability in ultrasound detection. J Perinatol. 19(7):498-500, 1999
                                                                                  15. Chen MY et al: Abnormal calcification on plain radiographs of the abdomen. Crit Rev Diagn Imaging. 40(2-3):63-202, 1999
                                                                                  16. Dyer RB et al: Abnormal calcifications in the urinary tract. Radiographics. 18(6):1405-24, 1998
                                                                                  17. al-Murrani B et al: Echogenic rings--an ultrasound sign of early nephrocalcinosis. Clin Radiol. 44(1):49-51, 1991
                                                                                  18. Toyoda K et al: Hyperechoic medulla of the kidneys. Radiology. 173(2):431-4, 1989
                                                                                  19. Curry NS et al: Renal medullary "rings": possible CT manifestation of hypercalcemia. Urol Radiol. 6(1):48-50, 1984