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Nephrocalcinosis
Matthew T. Heller, MD, FSAR; Michael P. Federle, MD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Top Differential Diagnoses

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Synonyms

            • Medullary nephrocalcinosis, cortical nephrocalcinosis
          • Definitions

            • Radiologically detectable diffuse calcium deposition within renal parenchyma

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    • MR Findings

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Shavit L et al: What is nephrocalcinosis? Kidney Int. ePub, 2015
                                          2. Koraishy FM et al: CT urography for the diagnosis of medullary sponge kidney. Am J Nephrol. 39(2):165-70, 2014
                                          3. Fabris A et al: Medullary sponge kidney: state of the art. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 28(5):1111-9, 2013
                                          4. Hida T et al: MR imaging of focal medullary sponge kidney: case report. Magn Reson Med Sci. 11(1):65-9, 2012
                                          5. Venkatanarasimha N et al: Imaging features of ductal plate malformations in adults. Clin Radiol. 66(11):1086-93, 2011
                                          6. Eddington H et al: Vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease: a clinical review. J Ren Care. 35 Suppl 1:45-50, 2009
                                          7. Bobrowski AE et al: The primary hyperoxalurias. Semin Nephrol. 28(2):152-62, 2008
                                          8. Heher EC et al: Adverse renal and metabolic effects associated with oral sodium phosphate bowel preparation. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 3(5):1494-503, 2008
                                          9. Muthukrishnan J et al: Distal renal tubular acidosis due to primary hyperparathyroidism. Endocr Pract. 14(9):1133-6, 2008
                                          10. Suh JM et al: Primary hyperparathyroidism: is there an increased prevalence of renal stone disease?. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 191(3):908-11, 2008
                                          11. Diallo O et al: Type 1 primary hyperoxaluria in pediatric patients: renal sonographic patterns. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 183(6):1767-70, 2004
                                          12. Peacock M: Primary hyperparathyroidism and the kidney: biochemical and clinical spectrum. J Bone Miner Res. 17 Suppl 2:N87-94, 2002
                                          13. Boonen S et al: Primary hyperparathyroidism: pathophysiology, diagnosis and indications for surgery. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Belg. 55(2):119-27, 2001
                                          14. Chen MY et al: Abnormal calcification on plain radiographs of the abdomen. Crit Rev Diagn Imaging. 40(2-3):63-202, 1999
                                          15. Dyer RB et al: Abnormal calcifications in the urinary tract. Radiographics. 18(6):1405-24, 1998
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                              • Pathology

                                                • Clinical Issues

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Synonyms

                                                    • Medullary nephrocalcinosis, cortical nephrocalcinosis
                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • Radiologically detectable diffuse calcium deposition within renal parenchyma

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • Radiographic Findings

                                                      • CT Findings

                                                        • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                                            • MR Findings

                                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                                • General Features

                                                                  • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                    • Microscopic Features

                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                              • Consider

                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Shavit L et al: What is nephrocalcinosis? Kidney Int. ePub, 2015
                                                                                  2. Koraishy FM et al: CT urography for the diagnosis of medullary sponge kidney. Am J Nephrol. 39(2):165-70, 2014
                                                                                  3. Fabris A et al: Medullary sponge kidney: state of the art. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 28(5):1111-9, 2013
                                                                                  4. Hida T et al: MR imaging of focal medullary sponge kidney: case report. Magn Reson Med Sci. 11(1):65-9, 2012
                                                                                  5. Venkatanarasimha N et al: Imaging features of ductal plate malformations in adults. Clin Radiol. 66(11):1086-93, 2011
                                                                                  6. Eddington H et al: Vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease: a clinical review. J Ren Care. 35 Suppl 1:45-50, 2009
                                                                                  7. Bobrowski AE et al: The primary hyperoxalurias. Semin Nephrol. 28(2):152-62, 2008
                                                                                  8. Heher EC et al: Adverse renal and metabolic effects associated with oral sodium phosphate bowel preparation. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 3(5):1494-503, 2008
                                                                                  9. Muthukrishnan J et al: Distal renal tubular acidosis due to primary hyperparathyroidism. Endocr Pract. 14(9):1133-6, 2008
                                                                                  10. Suh JM et al: Primary hyperparathyroidism: is there an increased prevalence of renal stone disease?. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 191(3):908-11, 2008
                                                                                  11. Diallo O et al: Type 1 primary hyperoxaluria in pediatric patients: renal sonographic patterns. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 183(6):1767-70, 2004
                                                                                  12. Peacock M: Primary hyperparathyroidism and the kidney: biochemical and clinical spectrum. J Bone Miner Res. 17 Suppl 2:N87-94, 2002
                                                                                  13. Boonen S et al: Primary hyperparathyroidism: pathophysiology, diagnosis and indications for surgery. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Belg. 55(2):119-27, 2001
                                                                                  14. Chen MY et al: Abnormal calcification on plain radiographs of the abdomen. Crit Rev Diagn Imaging. 40(2-3):63-202, 1999
                                                                                  15. Dyer RB et al: Abnormal calcifications in the urinary tract. Radiographics. 18(6):1405-24, 1998