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Neuroblastic Tumors
Kevin R. Moore, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Definitions

                • Neuroblastic tumors = ganglioneuroma (GN), ganglioneuroblastoma (GNB), and neuroblastoma (NB)
                  • Embryonal tumors derived from neural crest cells

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                        • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                          • Imaging Recommendations

                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                              PATHOLOGY

                              • General Features

                                • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                  • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                    • Microscopic Features

                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                      • Presentation

                                        • Demographics

                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                            • Treatment

                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                              • Consider

                                                • Reporting Tips

                                                  Selected References

                                                  1. Delloye-Bourgeois C et al: Hijacking of embryonic programs by neural crest-derived neuroblastoma: from physiological migration to metastatic dissemination. Front Mol Neurosci. 12:52, 2019
                                                  2. Higashi M et al: The roles played by the MYCN, Trk, and ALK genes in neuroblastoma and neural development. Surg Today. ePub, 2019
                                                  3. Newman EA et al: Update on neuroblastoma. J Pediatr Surg. 54(3):383-9, 2019
                                                  4. Sokol E et al: The Evolution of risk classification for neuroblastoma. Children (Basel). 6(2), 2019
                                                  5. Chen AM et al: A review of neuroblastoma image-defined risk factors on magnetic resonance imaging. Pediatr Radiol. 48(9):1337-47, 2018
                                                  6. Del Campo Braojos F et al: Practical application of the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group Staging System: a pictorial review. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. ePub, 2018
                                                  7. Yang X et al: Impact of extent of resection on survival in high-risk neuroblastoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Pediatr Surg. ePub, 2018
                                                  8. Whittle SB et al: Overview and recent advances in the treatment of neuroblastoma. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 17(4):369-86, 2017
                                                  9. Estiar MA et al: MYCN gene amplification in patients with neuroblastic tumors. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 60(3):23-8, 2014
                                                  10. Irtan S et al: Minimally invasive surgery of neuroblastic tumors in children: Indications depend on anatomical location and image-defined risk factors. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 62(2):257-61, 2014
                                                  11. Fendler WP et al: High ¹²³I-MIBG uptake in neuroblastic tumours indicates unfavourable histopathology. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 40(11):1701-10, 2013
                                                  12. Gahr N et al: Diffusion-weighted MRI for differentiation of neuroblastoma and ganglioneuroblastoma/ganglioneuroma. Eur J Radiol. 79(3):443-6, 2010
                                                  13. Aydin GB et al: Neurological complications of neuroblastic tumors: experience of a single center. Childs Nerv Syst. 26(3):359-65, 2010
                                                  14. Bourezgui M et al: [Cauda equina syndrome revealing neuroblastoma.] Rev Neurol (Paris). 164(12):1048-51, 2008
                                                  15. Loder RT et al: Abnormal rib number in childhood malignancy: implications for the scoliosis surgeon. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 32(8):904-10, 2007
                                                  16. Qiu Y et al: Adolescent thoracolumbar scoliosis secondary to ganglioneuroma: a two case report. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 32(10):E326-9, 2007
                                                  17. Pfluger T et al: Integrated imaging using MRI and 123I metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy to improve sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of pediatric neuroblastoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 181(4):1115-24, 2003
                                                  18. Rha SE et al: Neurogenic tumors in the abdomen: tumor types and imaging characteristics. Radiographics. 23(1):29-43, 2003
                                                  19. Tateishi U et al: Adult neuroblastoma: radiologic and clinicopathologic features. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 27(3):321-6, 2003
                                                  20. Lonergan GJ et al: Neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, and ganglioneuroma: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 22(4):911-34, 2002
                                                  21. Meyer JS et al: Imaging of neuroblastoma and Wilms' tumor. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 10(2):275-302, 2002
                                                  22. Siegel MJ et al: Staging of neuroblastoma at imaging: report of the radiology diagnostic oncology group. Radiology. 223(1):168-75, 2002
                                                  23. Geoerger B et al: Metabolic activity and clinical features of primary ganglioneuromas. Cancer. 91(10):1905-13, 2001
                                                  24. Kushner BH et al: Extending positron emission tomography scan utility to high-risk neuroblastoma: fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography as sole imaging modality in follow-up of patients. J Clin Oncol. 19(14):3397-405, 2001
                                                  25. Joshi VV: Peripheral neuroblastic tumors: pathologic classification based on recommendations of international neuroblastoma pathology committee (Modification of shimada classification). Pediatr Dev Pathol. 3(2):184-99, 2000
                                                  26. Schwab et al: Neuroblastic tumors of the adrenal gland and sympathetic nervous system. In Kleihues et al: Pathology and Genetics of Tumors of the Nervous System. Lyon: IARC Press. 153-61, 2000
                                                  27. Perel Y et al: Clinical impact and prognostic value of metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging in children with metastatic neuroblastoma. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 21(1):13-8, 1999
                                                  28. Sofka CM et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of neuroblastoma using current techniques. Magn Reson Imaging. 17(2):193-8, 1999
                                                  29. Brodeur GM et al: International criteria for diagnosis, staging, and response to treatment in patients with neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol. 6(12):1874-81, 1988
                                                  Related Anatomy
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                                                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                                  References
                                                  Tables

                                                  Tables

                                                  KEY FACTS

                                                  • Terminology

                                                    • Imaging

                                                      • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                        • Pathology

                                                          • Clinical Issues

                                                            • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                                              • Definitions

                                                                • Neuroblastic tumors = ganglioneuroma (GN), ganglioneuroblastoma (GNB), and neuroblastoma (NB)
                                                                  • Embryonal tumors derived from neural crest cells

                                                              IMAGING

                                                              • General Features

                                                                • Radiographic Findings

                                                                  • CT Findings

                                                                    • MR Findings

                                                                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                        • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                                              • General Features

                                                                                • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                                  • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                                    • Microscopic Features

                                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                              • Consider

                                                                                                • Reporting Tips

                                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                                  1. Delloye-Bourgeois C et al: Hijacking of embryonic programs by neural crest-derived neuroblastoma: from physiological migration to metastatic dissemination. Front Mol Neurosci. 12:52, 2019
                                                                                                  2. Higashi M et al: The roles played by the MYCN, Trk, and ALK genes in neuroblastoma and neural development. Surg Today. ePub, 2019
                                                                                                  3. Newman EA et al: Update on neuroblastoma. J Pediatr Surg. 54(3):383-9, 2019
                                                                                                  4. Sokol E et al: The Evolution of risk classification for neuroblastoma. Children (Basel). 6(2), 2019
                                                                                                  5. Chen AM et al: A review of neuroblastoma image-defined risk factors on magnetic resonance imaging. Pediatr Radiol. 48(9):1337-47, 2018
                                                                                                  6. Del Campo Braojos F et al: Practical application of the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group Staging System: a pictorial review. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. ePub, 2018
                                                                                                  7. Yang X et al: Impact of extent of resection on survival in high-risk neuroblastoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Pediatr Surg. ePub, 2018
                                                                                                  8. Whittle SB et al: Overview and recent advances in the treatment of neuroblastoma. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 17(4):369-86, 2017
                                                                                                  9. Estiar MA et al: MYCN gene amplification in patients with neuroblastic tumors. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 60(3):23-8, 2014
                                                                                                  10. Irtan S et al: Minimally invasive surgery of neuroblastic tumors in children: Indications depend on anatomical location and image-defined risk factors. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 62(2):257-61, 2014
                                                                                                  11. Fendler WP et al: High ¹²³I-MIBG uptake in neuroblastic tumours indicates unfavourable histopathology. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 40(11):1701-10, 2013
                                                                                                  12. Gahr N et al: Diffusion-weighted MRI for differentiation of neuroblastoma and ganglioneuroblastoma/ganglioneuroma. Eur J Radiol. 79(3):443-6, 2010
                                                                                                  13. Aydin GB et al: Neurological complications of neuroblastic tumors: experience of a single center. Childs Nerv Syst. 26(3):359-65, 2010
                                                                                                  14. Bourezgui M et al: [Cauda equina syndrome revealing neuroblastoma.] Rev Neurol (Paris). 164(12):1048-51, 2008
                                                                                                  15. Loder RT et al: Abnormal rib number in childhood malignancy: implications for the scoliosis surgeon. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 32(8):904-10, 2007
                                                                                                  16. Qiu Y et al: Adolescent thoracolumbar scoliosis secondary to ganglioneuroma: a two case report. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 32(10):E326-9, 2007
                                                                                                  17. Pfluger T et al: Integrated imaging using MRI and 123I metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy to improve sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of pediatric neuroblastoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 181(4):1115-24, 2003
                                                                                                  18. Rha SE et al: Neurogenic tumors in the abdomen: tumor types and imaging characteristics. Radiographics. 23(1):29-43, 2003
                                                                                                  19. Tateishi U et al: Adult neuroblastoma: radiologic and clinicopathologic features. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 27(3):321-6, 2003
                                                                                                  20. Lonergan GJ et al: Neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, and ganglioneuroma: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 22(4):911-34, 2002
                                                                                                  21. Meyer JS et al: Imaging of neuroblastoma and Wilms' tumor. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 10(2):275-302, 2002
                                                                                                  22. Siegel MJ et al: Staging of neuroblastoma at imaging: report of the radiology diagnostic oncology group. Radiology. 223(1):168-75, 2002
                                                                                                  23. Geoerger B et al: Metabolic activity and clinical features of primary ganglioneuromas. Cancer. 91(10):1905-13, 2001
                                                                                                  24. Kushner BH et al: Extending positron emission tomography scan utility to high-risk neuroblastoma: fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography as sole imaging modality in follow-up of patients. J Clin Oncol. 19(14):3397-405, 2001
                                                                                                  25. Joshi VV: Peripheral neuroblastic tumors: pathologic classification based on recommendations of international neuroblastoma pathology committee (Modification of shimada classification). Pediatr Dev Pathol. 3(2):184-99, 2000
                                                                                                  26. Schwab et al: Neuroblastic tumors of the adrenal gland and sympathetic nervous system. In Kleihues et al: Pathology and Genetics of Tumors of the Nervous System. Lyon: IARC Press. 153-61, 2000
                                                                                                  27. Perel Y et al: Clinical impact and prognostic value of metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging in children with metastatic neuroblastoma. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 21(1):13-8, 1999
                                                                                                  28. Sofka CM et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of neuroblastoma using current techniques. Magn Reson Imaging. 17(2):193-8, 1999
                                                                                                  29. Brodeur GM et al: International criteria for diagnosis, staging, and response to treatment in patients with neuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol. 6(12):1874-81, 1988