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Neuroblastoma, Adrenal/Retroperitoneal
A. Carlson Merrow, Jr., MD, FAAP
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Definitions

            • Malignant tumor of sympathetic chain primitive neural crest cells
            • Increasing degrees of cellular differentiation/benignity along spectrum: Neuroblastoma [(NBL), malignant] → ganglioneuroblastoma (GNBL) → ganglioneuroma [(GN), benign]

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Bleeker G et al: MIBG scans in patients with stage 4 neuroblastoma reveal two metastatic patterns, one is associated with MYCN amplification and in MYCN-amplified tumours correlates with a better prognosis. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 42(2):222-30, 2015
                                      2. Demir S et al: Variations in apparent diffusion coefficient values following chemotherapy in pediatric neuroblastoma. Diagn Interv Radiol. 21(2):184-8, 2015
                                      3. Irwin MS et al: Neuroblastoma: paradigm for precision medicine. Pediatr Clin North Am. 62(1):225-56, 2015
                                      4. Maki E et al: Imaging and differential diagnosis of suprarenal masses in the fetus. J Ultrasound Med. 33(5):895-904, 2014
                                      5. Park JR et al: Children's Oncology Group's 2013 blueprint for research: neuroblastoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 60(6):985-93, 2013
                                      6. Sharp SE et al: Functional-metabolic imaging of neuroblastoma. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 57(1):6-20, 2013
                                      7. Fisher JP et al: Neonatal neuroblastoma. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 17(4):207-15, 2012
                                      8. Nour-Eldin NE et al: Pediatric primary and metastatic neuroblastoma: MRI findings: pictorial review. Magn Reson Imaging. 30(7):893-906, 2012
                                      9. Brisse HJ et al: Guidelines for imaging and staging of neuroblastic tumors: consensus report from the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group Project. Radiology. 261(1):243-57, 2011
                                      10. McCarville MB: Imaging neuroblastoma: what the radiologist needs to know. Cancer Imaging. 11 Spec No A:S44-7, 2011
                                      11. Sharp SE et al: Pediatrics: diagnosis of neuroblastoma. Semin Nucl Med. 41(5):345-53, 2011
                                      12. Cohn SL et al: The International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) classification system: an INRG Task Force report. J Clin Oncol. 27(2):289-97, 2009
                                      13. Lonergan GJ et al: Neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, and ganglioneuroma: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 22(4):911-34, 2002
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                            • Clinical Issues

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Definitions

                                                • Malignant tumor of sympathetic chain primitive neural crest cells
                                                • Increasing degrees of cellular differentiation/benignity along spectrum: Neuroblastoma [(NBL), malignant] → ganglioneuroblastoma (GNBL) → ganglioneuroma [(GN), benign]

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • Radiographic Findings

                                                  • CT Findings

                                                    • MR Findings

                                                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                        • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                              • General Features

                                                                • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                  • Microscopic Features

                                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                    • Presentation

                                                                      • Demographics

                                                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Bleeker G et al: MIBG scans in patients with stage 4 neuroblastoma reveal two metastatic patterns, one is associated with MYCN amplification and in MYCN-amplified tumours correlates with a better prognosis. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 42(2):222-30, 2015
                                                                          2. Demir S et al: Variations in apparent diffusion coefficient values following chemotherapy in pediatric neuroblastoma. Diagn Interv Radiol. 21(2):184-8, 2015
                                                                          3. Irwin MS et al: Neuroblastoma: paradigm for precision medicine. Pediatr Clin North Am. 62(1):225-56, 2015
                                                                          4. Maki E et al: Imaging and differential diagnosis of suprarenal masses in the fetus. J Ultrasound Med. 33(5):895-904, 2014
                                                                          5. Park JR et al: Children's Oncology Group's 2013 blueprint for research: neuroblastoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 60(6):985-93, 2013
                                                                          6. Sharp SE et al: Functional-metabolic imaging of neuroblastoma. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 57(1):6-20, 2013
                                                                          7. Fisher JP et al: Neonatal neuroblastoma. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 17(4):207-15, 2012
                                                                          8. Nour-Eldin NE et al: Pediatric primary and metastatic neuroblastoma: MRI findings: pictorial review. Magn Reson Imaging. 30(7):893-906, 2012
                                                                          9. Brisse HJ et al: Guidelines for imaging and staging of neuroblastic tumors: consensus report from the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group Project. Radiology. 261(1):243-57, 2011
                                                                          10. McCarville MB: Imaging neuroblastoma: what the radiologist needs to know. Cancer Imaging. 11 Spec No A:S44-7, 2011
                                                                          11. Sharp SE et al: Pediatrics: diagnosis of neuroblastoma. Semin Nucl Med. 41(5):345-53, 2011
                                                                          12. Cohn SL et al: The International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) classification system: an INRG Task Force report. J Clin Oncol. 27(2):289-97, 2009
                                                                          13. Lonergan GJ et al: Neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, and ganglioneuroma: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 22(4):911-34, 2002