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Neuroendocrine Cell Hyperplasia of Infancy
Mantosh S. Rattan, MD; Randy R. Richardson, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI)
              • Synonyms

                • Familial NEHI
                • Persistent tachypnea of infancy (term no longer in use)
              • Definitions

                • Form of childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD) associated with neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia
                  • First descriptions in 2001-2005

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          • Reporting Tips

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Verma N et al: ChILD: A pictorial review of pulmonary imaging findings in childhood interstitial lung diseases. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 50(1):95-103, 2021
                                            2. Wu M et al: Childhood interstitial lung disease: a case-based review of the imaging findings. Ann Thorac Med. 16(1):64-72, 2021
                                            3. Liptzin DR et al: Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy. Clinical score and comorbidities. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 17(6):724-8, 2020
                                            4. Bush A et al: Early onset children's interstitial lung diseases: discrete entities or manifestations of pulmonary dysmaturity? Paediatr Respir Rev. 30:65-71, 2018
                                            5. Mastej EJ et al: Lung and airway shape in neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy. Pediatr Radiol. 48(12):1745-54, 2018
                                            6. Mengoli MC et al: Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) syndrome and carcinoid tumors with/without NECH: A clinicopathologic, radiologic, and immunomolecular comparison study. Am J Surg Pathol. 42(5):646-55, 2018
                                            7. Houin PR et al: Exacerbations in neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy are characterized by increased air trapping. Pediatr Pulmonol. 51(3):E9-12, 2016
                                            8. Kerby GS et al: Abnormal infant pulmonary function in young children with neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy. Pediatr Pulmonol. 48(10):1008-15, 2013
                                            9. Lukkarinen H et al: Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy: a prospective follow-up of nine children. Arch Dis Child. 98(2):141-4, 2013
                                            10. Young LR et al: A mutation in TTF1/NKX2.1 is associated with familial neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy. Chest. 144(4):1199-206, 2013
                                            11. Das S et al: Interstitial lung disease in children. Curr Opin Pediatr. 23(3):325-31, 2011
                                            12. Guillerman RP et al: Contemporary perspectives on pediatric diffuse lung disease. Radiol Clin North Am. 49(5):847-68, 2011
                                            13. Young LR et al: Neuroendocrine cell distribution and frequency distinguish neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy from other pulmonary disorders. Chest. 139(5):1060-71, 2011
                                            14. Brody AS et al: Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy: diagnosis with high-resolution CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 194(1):238-44, 2010
                                            15. Popler J et al: Beyond infancy: persistence of chronic lung disease in neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI). Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 181(1):A6721, 2010
                                            16. Popler J et al: Familial neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy. Pediatr Pulmonol. 45(8):749-55, 2010
                                            17. Brody AS: Computed tomography of pediatric small airways disease. In Boiselle PM et al: CT of the Airways. New York; Humana Press. 381-404, 2009
                                            18. Klusmann M et al: HRCT in paediatric diffuse interstitial lung disease--a review for 2009. Pediatr Radiol. 39 Suppl 3:471-81, 2009
                                            19. Langston C et al: Diffuse lung disease in infancy: a proposed classification applied to 259 diagnostic biopsies. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 12(6):421-37, 2009
                                            20. Deutsch GH et al: Diffuse lung disease in young children: application of a novel classification scheme. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 176(11):1120-8, 2007
                                            21. Brody AS et al: Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI). Pediatr Radiol. 36(12):1328, 2006
                                            22. Deterding RR et al: Persistent tachypnea of infancy is associated with neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia. Pediatr Pulmonol. 40(2):157-65, 2005
                                            23. Pipavath SJ et al: Radiologic and pathologic features of bronchiolitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 185(2):354-63, 2005
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Terminology

                                              • Imaging

                                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                  • Pathology

                                                    • Clinical Issues

                                                      • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                                        • Abbreviations

                                                          • Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI)
                                                        • Synonyms

                                                          • Familial NEHI
                                                          • Persistent tachypnea of infancy (term no longer in use)
                                                        • Definitions

                                                          • Form of childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD) associated with neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia
                                                            • First descriptions in 2001-2005

                                                        IMAGING

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • Radiographic Findings

                                                            • CT Findings

                                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                                  • General Features

                                                                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                      • Microscopic Features

                                                                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                        • Presentation

                                                                          • Demographics

                                                                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                              • Treatment

                                                                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                • Consider

                                                                                  • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                    • Reporting Tips

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Verma N et al: ChILD: A pictorial review of pulmonary imaging findings in childhood interstitial lung diseases. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 50(1):95-103, 2021
                                                                                      2. Wu M et al: Childhood interstitial lung disease: a case-based review of the imaging findings. Ann Thorac Med. 16(1):64-72, 2021
                                                                                      3. Liptzin DR et al: Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy. Clinical score and comorbidities. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 17(6):724-8, 2020
                                                                                      4. Bush A et al: Early onset children's interstitial lung diseases: discrete entities or manifestations of pulmonary dysmaturity? Paediatr Respir Rev. 30:65-71, 2018
                                                                                      5. Mastej EJ et al: Lung and airway shape in neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy. Pediatr Radiol. 48(12):1745-54, 2018
                                                                                      6. Mengoli MC et al: Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) syndrome and carcinoid tumors with/without NECH: A clinicopathologic, radiologic, and immunomolecular comparison study. Am J Surg Pathol. 42(5):646-55, 2018
                                                                                      7. Houin PR et al: Exacerbations in neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy are characterized by increased air trapping. Pediatr Pulmonol. 51(3):E9-12, 2016
                                                                                      8. Kerby GS et al: Abnormal infant pulmonary function in young children with neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy. Pediatr Pulmonol. 48(10):1008-15, 2013
                                                                                      9. Lukkarinen H et al: Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy: a prospective follow-up of nine children. Arch Dis Child. 98(2):141-4, 2013
                                                                                      10. Young LR et al: A mutation in TTF1/NKX2.1 is associated with familial neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy. Chest. 144(4):1199-206, 2013
                                                                                      11. Das S et al: Interstitial lung disease in children. Curr Opin Pediatr. 23(3):325-31, 2011
                                                                                      12. Guillerman RP et al: Contemporary perspectives on pediatric diffuse lung disease. Radiol Clin North Am. 49(5):847-68, 2011
                                                                                      13. Young LR et al: Neuroendocrine cell distribution and frequency distinguish neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy from other pulmonary disorders. Chest. 139(5):1060-71, 2011
                                                                                      14. Brody AS et al: Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy: diagnosis with high-resolution CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 194(1):238-44, 2010
                                                                                      15. Popler J et al: Beyond infancy: persistence of chronic lung disease in neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI). Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 181(1):A6721, 2010
                                                                                      16. Popler J et al: Familial neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy. Pediatr Pulmonol. 45(8):749-55, 2010
                                                                                      17. Brody AS: Computed tomography of pediatric small airways disease. In Boiselle PM et al: CT of the Airways. New York; Humana Press. 381-404, 2009
                                                                                      18. Klusmann M et al: HRCT in paediatric diffuse interstitial lung disease--a review for 2009. Pediatr Radiol. 39 Suppl 3:471-81, 2009
                                                                                      19. Langston C et al: Diffuse lung disease in infancy: a proposed classification applied to 259 diagnostic biopsies. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 12(6):421-37, 2009
                                                                                      20. Deutsch GH et al: Diffuse lung disease in young children: application of a novel classification scheme. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 176(11):1120-8, 2007
                                                                                      21. Brody AS et al: Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI). Pediatr Radiol. 36(12):1328, 2006
                                                                                      22. Deterding RR et al: Persistent tachypnea of infancy is associated with neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia. Pediatr Pulmonol. 40(2):157-65, 2005
                                                                                      23. Pipavath SJ et al: Radiologic and pathologic features of bronchiolitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 185(2):354-63, 2005