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Neuroendocrine Cell Hyperplasia of Infancy
Mantosh S. Rattan, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI)
              • Synonyms

                • Familial neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy
                • Persistent tachypnea of infancy (term no longer used)
              • Definitions

                • Form of childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD) associated with neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia
                  • First descriptions in 2001-2005

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          • Reporting Tips

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Houin PR et al: Exacerbations in neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy are characterized by increased air trapping. Pediatr Pulmonol. 51(3):E9-E12, 2016
                                            2. Kerby GS et al: Abnormal infant pulmonary function in young children with neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy. Pediatr Pulmonol. 48(10):1008-15, 2013
                                            3. Lukkarinen H et al: Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy: a prospective follow-up of nine children. Arch Dis Child. 98(2):141-4, 2013
                                            4. Young LR et al: A mutation in TTF1/NKX2.1 is associated with familial neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy. Chest. 144(4):1199-206, 2013
                                            5. Das S et al: Interstitial lung disease in children. Curr Opin Pediatr. 23(3):325-31, 2011
                                            6. Guillerman RP et al: Contemporary perspectives on pediatric diffuse lung disease. Radiol Clin North Am. 49(5):847-68, 2011
                                            7. Young LR et al: Neuroendocrine cell distribution and frequency distinguish neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy from other pulmonary disorders. Chest. 139(5):1060-71, 2011
                                            8. Brody AS et al: Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy: diagnosis with high-resolution CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 194(1):238-44, 2010
                                            9. Popler J et al: Beyond infancy: persistence of chronic lung disease in neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI). Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 181(1):A6721, 2010
                                            10. Popler J et al: Familial neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy. Pediatr Pulmonol. 45(8):749-55, 2010
                                            11. Brody AS: Computed tomography of pediatric small airways disease. In Boiselle PM et al: CT of the Airways. New York; Humana Press. 381-404, 2009
                                            12. Klusmann M et al: HRCT in paediatric diffuse interstitial lung disease--a review for 2009. Pediatr Radiol. 39 Suppl 3:471-81, 2009
                                            13. Langston C et al: Diffuse lung disease in infancy: a proposed classification applied to 259 diagnostic biopsies. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 12(6):421-37, 2009
                                            14. Deutsch GH et al: Diffuse lung disease in young children: application of a novel classification scheme. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 176(11):1120-8, 2007
                                            15. Brody AS et al: Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI). Pediatr Radiol. 36(12):1328, 2006
                                            16. Deterding RR et al: Persistent tachypnea of infancy is associated with neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia. Pediatr Pulmonol. 40(2):157-65, 2005
                                            17. Pipavath SJ et al: Radiologic and pathologic features of bronchiolitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 185(2):354-63, 2005
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Terminology

                                              • Imaging

                                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                  • Pathology

                                                    • Clinical Issues

                                                      • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                                        • Abbreviations

                                                          • Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI)
                                                        • Synonyms

                                                          • Familial neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy
                                                          • Persistent tachypnea of infancy (term no longer used)
                                                        • Definitions

                                                          • Form of childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD) associated with neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia
                                                            • First descriptions in 2001-2005

                                                        IMAGING

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • Radiographic Findings

                                                            • CT Findings

                                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                                  • General Features

                                                                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                      • Microscopic Features

                                                                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                        • Presentation

                                                                          • Demographics

                                                                            • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                              • Treatment

                                                                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                • Consider

                                                                                  • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                    • Reporting Tips

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Houin PR et al: Exacerbations in neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy are characterized by increased air trapping. Pediatr Pulmonol. 51(3):E9-E12, 2016
                                                                                      2. Kerby GS et al: Abnormal infant pulmonary function in young children with neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy. Pediatr Pulmonol. 48(10):1008-15, 2013
                                                                                      3. Lukkarinen H et al: Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy: a prospective follow-up of nine children. Arch Dis Child. 98(2):141-4, 2013
                                                                                      4. Young LR et al: A mutation in TTF1/NKX2.1 is associated with familial neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy. Chest. 144(4):1199-206, 2013
                                                                                      5. Das S et al: Interstitial lung disease in children. Curr Opin Pediatr. 23(3):325-31, 2011
                                                                                      6. Guillerman RP et al: Contemporary perspectives on pediatric diffuse lung disease. Radiol Clin North Am. 49(5):847-68, 2011
                                                                                      7. Young LR et al: Neuroendocrine cell distribution and frequency distinguish neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy from other pulmonary disorders. Chest. 139(5):1060-71, 2011
                                                                                      8. Brody AS et al: Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy: diagnosis with high-resolution CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 194(1):238-44, 2010
                                                                                      9. Popler J et al: Beyond infancy: persistence of chronic lung disease in neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI). Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 181(1):A6721, 2010
                                                                                      10. Popler J et al: Familial neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy. Pediatr Pulmonol. 45(8):749-55, 2010
                                                                                      11. Brody AS: Computed tomography of pediatric small airways disease. In Boiselle PM et al: CT of the Airways. New York; Humana Press. 381-404, 2009
                                                                                      12. Klusmann M et al: HRCT in paediatric diffuse interstitial lung disease--a review for 2009. Pediatr Radiol. 39 Suppl 3:471-81, 2009
                                                                                      13. Langston C et al: Diffuse lung disease in infancy: a proposed classification applied to 259 diagnostic biopsies. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 12(6):421-37, 2009
                                                                                      14. Deutsch GH et al: Diffuse lung disease in young children: application of a novel classification scheme. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 176(11):1120-8, 2007
                                                                                      15. Brody AS et al: Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI). Pediatr Radiol. 36(12):1328, 2006
                                                                                      16. Deterding RR et al: Persistent tachypnea of infancy is associated with neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia. Pediatr Pulmonol. 40(2):157-65, 2005
                                                                                      17. Pipavath SJ et al: Radiologic and pathologic features of bronchiolitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 185(2):354-63, 2005