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Neurogenic Bladder
Steven J. Kraus, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Definitions

            • Neurogenic bladder (NGB): Bladder dysfunction due to neurologic disorder

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • Fluoroscopic Findings

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Demographics

                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                • Treatment

                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                  • Consider

                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Bagińska J et al: Non-invasive markers in the management of pediatric neurogenic bladder over the last two decades - a review. Adv Med Sci. 66(1):162-9, 2021
                                      2. Selby B et al: Development and validation of a bladder trabeculation grading system in pediatric neurogenic bladder. J Pediatr Urol. 16(3):367-70, 2020
                                      3. Timberlake MD et al: Streamlining risk stratification in infants and young children with spinal dysraphism: vesicoureteral reflux and/or bladder trabeculations outperforms other urodynamic findings for predicting adverse outcomes. J Pediatr Urol. 14(4):319.e1-7, 2018
                                      4. Prakash R et al: Predictors of upper tract damage in pediatric neurogenic bladder. J Pediatr Urol. 13(5):503.e1-7, 2017
                                      5. Sripathi V et al: Management of neurogenic bladder. Indian J Pediatr. 84(7):545-554, 2017
                                      6. Sadiq S et al: Lumbosacral dysraphism as cause of neurogenic bladder: magnetic resonance imaging based study from SIUT Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc. 65(5):501-5, 2015
                                      7. VanderBrink BA et al: Epididymitis in patients with anorectal malformations: a cause for urologic concern. Int Braz J Urol. 40(5):676-82, 2014
                                      8. Helmy TE et al: Vesicouretral reflux with neuropathic bladder: studying the resolution rate after ileocystoplasty. Urology. 82(2):425-8, 2013
                                      9. Hsi RS et al: Effective and organ specific radiation doses from videourodynamics in children. J Urol. 190(4):1364-9, 2013
                                      10. Larijani FJ et al: Preventing kidney injury in children with neurogenic bladder dysfunction. Int J Prev Med. 4(12):1359-64, 2013
                                      11. Gormley EA: Urologic complications of the neurogenic bladder. Urol Clin North Am. 37(4):601-7, 2010
                                      12. Vidal I et al: Severe bladder dysfunction revealed prenatally or during infancy. J Pediatr Urol. 5(1):3-7, 2009
                                      13. Bauer SB: Neurogenic bladder: etiology and assessment. Pediatr Nephrol. 23(4):541-51, 2008
                                      14. Proesmans W: The neurogenic bladder: introducing four contributions. Pediatr Nephrol. 23(4):537-40, 2008
                                      15. Kajbafzadeh AM et al: Infantile bladder rupture during voiding cystourethrography. Int Braz J Urol. 33(4):532-5; discussion 535, 2007
                                      16. Campioni P et al: Diagnostic imaging of neurogenic bladder. Rays. 27(2):121-5, 2002
                                      17. Campioni P et al: The neurogenic bladder: anatomy and neurophysiology. Rays. 27(2):107-14, 2002
                                      18. Bankhead RW et al: Evaluation and treatment of children with neurogenic bladders. J Child Neurol. 15(3):141-9, 2000
                                      19. Fotter R: Neurogenic bladder in infants and children--a new challenge for the radiologist. Abdom Imaging. 21(6):534-40, 1996
                                      20. Fernbach SK et al: Abnormalities of the bladder in children: imaging findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 162(5):1143-50, 1994
                                      21. Rushton HG et al: Delayed bladder rupture after augmentation enterocystoplasty. J Urol. 140(2):344-6, 1988
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Pathology

                                            • Clinical Issues

                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                              • Definitions

                                                • Neurogenic bladder (NGB): Bladder dysfunction due to neurologic disorder

                                              IMAGING

                                              • General Features

                                                • Radiographic Findings

                                                  • Fluoroscopic Findings

                                                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                              • Presentation

                                                                • Demographics

                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                      • Consider

                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Bagińska J et al: Non-invasive markers in the management of pediatric neurogenic bladder over the last two decades - a review. Adv Med Sci. 66(1):162-9, 2021
                                                                          2. Selby B et al: Development and validation of a bladder trabeculation grading system in pediatric neurogenic bladder. J Pediatr Urol. 16(3):367-70, 2020
                                                                          3. Timberlake MD et al: Streamlining risk stratification in infants and young children with spinal dysraphism: vesicoureteral reflux and/or bladder trabeculations outperforms other urodynamic findings for predicting adverse outcomes. J Pediatr Urol. 14(4):319.e1-7, 2018
                                                                          4. Prakash R et al: Predictors of upper tract damage in pediatric neurogenic bladder. J Pediatr Urol. 13(5):503.e1-7, 2017
                                                                          5. Sripathi V et al: Management of neurogenic bladder. Indian J Pediatr. 84(7):545-554, 2017
                                                                          6. Sadiq S et al: Lumbosacral dysraphism as cause of neurogenic bladder: magnetic resonance imaging based study from SIUT Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc. 65(5):501-5, 2015
                                                                          7. VanderBrink BA et al: Epididymitis in patients with anorectal malformations: a cause for urologic concern. Int Braz J Urol. 40(5):676-82, 2014
                                                                          8. Helmy TE et al: Vesicouretral reflux with neuropathic bladder: studying the resolution rate after ileocystoplasty. Urology. 82(2):425-8, 2013
                                                                          9. Hsi RS et al: Effective and organ specific radiation doses from videourodynamics in children. J Urol. 190(4):1364-9, 2013
                                                                          10. Larijani FJ et al: Preventing kidney injury in children with neurogenic bladder dysfunction. Int J Prev Med. 4(12):1359-64, 2013
                                                                          11. Gormley EA: Urologic complications of the neurogenic bladder. Urol Clin North Am. 37(4):601-7, 2010
                                                                          12. Vidal I et al: Severe bladder dysfunction revealed prenatally or during infancy. J Pediatr Urol. 5(1):3-7, 2009
                                                                          13. Bauer SB: Neurogenic bladder: etiology and assessment. Pediatr Nephrol. 23(4):541-51, 2008
                                                                          14. Proesmans W: The neurogenic bladder: introducing four contributions. Pediatr Nephrol. 23(4):537-40, 2008
                                                                          15. Kajbafzadeh AM et al: Infantile bladder rupture during voiding cystourethrography. Int Braz J Urol. 33(4):532-5; discussion 535, 2007
                                                                          16. Campioni P et al: Diagnostic imaging of neurogenic bladder. Rays. 27(2):121-5, 2002
                                                                          17. Campioni P et al: The neurogenic bladder: anatomy and neurophysiology. Rays. 27(2):107-14, 2002
                                                                          18. Bankhead RW et al: Evaluation and treatment of children with neurogenic bladders. J Child Neurol. 15(3):141-9, 2000
                                                                          19. Fotter R: Neurogenic bladder in infants and children--a new challenge for the radiologist. Abdom Imaging. 21(6):534-40, 1996
                                                                          20. Fernbach SK et al: Abnormalities of the bladder in children: imaging findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 162(5):1143-50, 1994
                                                                          21. Rushton HG et al: Delayed bladder rupture after augmentation enterocystoplasty. J Urol. 140(2):344-6, 1988