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Neurosarcoid
Anne G. Osborn, MD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • Neurosarcoid (NS)
              • Definitions

                • Chronic multisystem inflammatory disease characterized by noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Consider

                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Saygin D et al: Differentiation between neurosarcoidosis and primary central nervous system vasculitis based on demographic, cerebrospinal and imaging features. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 124(2):135-8, 2020
                                              2. Sammarra I et al: Value of multimodal imaging approach to diagnosis of neurosarcoidosis. Brain Sci. 9(10), 2019
                                              3. Bathla G et al: Cerebrovascular manifestations of neurosarcoidosis: an underrecognized aspect of the imaging spectrum. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 39(7):1194-200, 2018
                                              4. Bathla G et al: Cerebrovascular manifestations in neurosarcoidosis: how common are they and does perivascular enhancement matter? Clin Radiol. 73(10):907.e15-907.e23, 2018
                                              5. Jachiet V et al: Clinical, imaging, and histological presentations and outcomes of stroke related to sarcoidosis. J Neurol. 265(10):2333-41, 2018
                                              6. Kidd DP: Sarcoidosis of the central nervous system: clinical features, imaging, and CSF results. J Neurol. 265(8):1906-15, 2018
                                              7. Stern BJ et al: Definition and consensus diagnostic criteria for neurosarcoidosis: from the Neurosarcoidosis Consortium Consensus Group. JAMA Neurol. 75(12):1546-53, 2018
                                              8. Zamora C et al: Engorgement of deep medullary veins in neurosarcoidosis: a common-yet-underrecognized cerebrovascular finding on SWI. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 39(11):2045-50, 2018
                                              9. Ungprasert P et al: Neurosarcoidosis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 43(4):593-606, 2017
                                              10. Vukojević Z et al: Neurosarcoidosis and multiple intracerebral hematomas: An unusual clinical presentation. J Neurol Sci. 379:22-4, 2017
                                              11. Bathla G et al: Imaging of neurosarcoidosis: common, uncommon, and rare. Clin Radiol. 71(1):96-106, 2016
                                              12. Carlson ML et al: Cranial base manifestations of neurosarcoidosis: a review of 305 patients. Otol Neurotol. 36(1):156-66, 2015
                                              13. Hebel R et al: Overview of neurosarcoidosis: recent advances. J Neurol. 262(2):258-67, 2015
                                              14. Wegener S et al: Clinically isolated neurosarcoidosis: a recommended diagnostic path. Eur Neurol. 73(1-2):71-7, 2015
                                              15. Shah R et al: Correlation of MR imaging findings and clinical manifestations in neurosarcoidosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 30(5):953-61, 2009
                                              Related Anatomy
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                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                    • Pathology

                                                      • Clinical Issues

                                                        • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                                          • Abbreviations

                                                            • Neurosarcoid (NS)
                                                          • Definitions

                                                            • Chronic multisystem inflammatory disease characterized by noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas

                                                          IMAGING

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Radiographic Findings

                                                              • CT Findings

                                                                • MR Findings

                                                                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                                        • General Features

                                                                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                              • Presentation

                                                                                • Demographics

                                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                      • Consider

                                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Saygin D et al: Differentiation between neurosarcoidosis and primary central nervous system vasculitis based on demographic, cerebrospinal and imaging features. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 124(2):135-8, 2020
                                                                                          2. Sammarra I et al: Value of multimodal imaging approach to diagnosis of neurosarcoidosis. Brain Sci. 9(10), 2019
                                                                                          3. Bathla G et al: Cerebrovascular manifestations of neurosarcoidosis: an underrecognized aspect of the imaging spectrum. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 39(7):1194-200, 2018
                                                                                          4. Bathla G et al: Cerebrovascular manifestations in neurosarcoidosis: how common are they and does perivascular enhancement matter? Clin Radiol. 73(10):907.e15-907.e23, 2018
                                                                                          5. Jachiet V et al: Clinical, imaging, and histological presentations and outcomes of stroke related to sarcoidosis. J Neurol. 265(10):2333-41, 2018
                                                                                          6. Kidd DP: Sarcoidosis of the central nervous system: clinical features, imaging, and CSF results. J Neurol. 265(8):1906-15, 2018
                                                                                          7. Stern BJ et al: Definition and consensus diagnostic criteria for neurosarcoidosis: from the Neurosarcoidosis Consortium Consensus Group. JAMA Neurol. 75(12):1546-53, 2018
                                                                                          8. Zamora C et al: Engorgement of deep medullary veins in neurosarcoidosis: a common-yet-underrecognized cerebrovascular finding on SWI. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 39(11):2045-50, 2018
                                                                                          9. Ungprasert P et al: Neurosarcoidosis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 43(4):593-606, 2017
                                                                                          10. Vukojević Z et al: Neurosarcoidosis and multiple intracerebral hematomas: An unusual clinical presentation. J Neurol Sci. 379:22-4, 2017
                                                                                          11. Bathla G et al: Imaging of neurosarcoidosis: common, uncommon, and rare. Clin Radiol. 71(1):96-106, 2016
                                                                                          12. Carlson ML et al: Cranial base manifestations of neurosarcoidosis: a review of 305 patients. Otol Neurotol. 36(1):156-66, 2015
                                                                                          13. Hebel R et al: Overview of neurosarcoidosis: recent advances. J Neurol. 262(2):258-67, 2015
                                                                                          14. Wegener S et al: Clinically isolated neurosarcoidosis: a recommended diagnostic path. Eur Neurol. 73(1-2):71-7, 2015
                                                                                          15. Shah R et al: Correlation of MR imaging findings and clinical manifestations in neurosarcoidosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 30(5):953-61, 2009