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Neurotransmitter Systems
Jeffrey S. Anderson, MD, PhD
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IMAGING ANATOMY

  • Overview

    • Dopamine

      • Norepinephrine

        • Serotonin

          • Acetylcholine

            • Minor Neurotransmitters

              • Neuropeptide Systems

                • Endocannabinoid System

                  • Neuroendocrine Pathways

                    CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS

                    • Clinical Importance

                      Selected References

                      1. Bruinsma TJ et al: The relationship between dopamine neurotransmitter dynamics and the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal: a review of pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging. Front Neurosci. 12:238, 2018
                      2. Covey DP et al: Endocannabinoid modulation of dopamine neurotransmission. Neuropharmacology. 124:52-61, 2017
                      3. Harmer CJ et al: How do antidepressants work? New perspectives for refining future treatment approaches. Lancet Psychiatry. 4(5):409-18, 2017
                      4. Lu HC et al: An introduction to the endogenous cannabinoid system. Biol Psychiatry. 79(7):516-25, 2016
                      5. North RA: P2X receptors. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 371(1700), 2016
                      6. Shamay-Tsoory S et al: Understanding the oxytocin system and its relevance to psychiatry. Biol Psychiatry. 79(3):150-2, 2016
                      7. Barth C et al: Sex hormones affect neurotransmitters and shape the adult female brain during hormonal transition periods. Front Neurosci. 9:37, 2015
                      8. Berridge KC et al: Pleasure systems in the brain. Neuron. 86(3):646-64, 2015
                      9. Herring BE et al: Is aspartate an excitatory neurotransmitter? J Neurosci. 35(28):10168-71, 2015
                      10. Tuominen L et al: Mapping neurotransmitter networks with PET: an example on serotonin and opioid systems. Hum Brain Mapp. 35(5):1875-84, 2014
                      11. Benarroch EE: Endogenous opioid systems: current concepts and clinical correlations. Neurology. 79(8):807-14, 2012
                      12. Khakh BS et al: Neuromodulation by extracellular ATP and P2X receptors in the CNS. Neuron. 76(1):51-69, 2012
                      13. Montoya ER et al: Testosterone, cortisol, and serotonin as key regulators of social aggression: a review and theoretical perspective. Motiv Emot. 36(1):65-73, 2012
                      14. Charnay Y et al: Brain serotonergic circuitries. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 12(4):471-87, 2010
                      15. Nuutinen S et al: Histamine in neurotransmission and brain diseases. Adv Exp Med Biol. 709:95-107, 2010
                      16. Berridge KC et al: Dissecting components of reward: 'liking', 'wanting', and learning. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 9(1):65-73, 2009
                      17. Langmead CJ et al: Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors as CNS drug targets. Pharmacol Ther. 117(2):232-43, 2008
                      18. Wang HY et al: beta-Amyloid(1-42) binds to alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor with high affinity. Implications for Alzheimer's disease pathology. J Biol Chem. 275(8):5626-32, 2000
                      19. Fonnum F: Glutamate: a neurotransmitter in mammalian brain. J Neurochem. 42(1):1-11, 1984
                      Related Anatomy
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                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                      References
                      Tables

                      Tables

                      IMAGING ANATOMY

                      • Overview

                        • Dopamine

                          • Norepinephrine

                            • Serotonin

                              • Acetylcholine

                                • Minor Neurotransmitters

                                  • Neuropeptide Systems

                                    • Endocannabinoid System

                                      • Neuroendocrine Pathways

                                        CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS

                                        • Clinical Importance

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Bruinsma TJ et al: The relationship between dopamine neurotransmitter dynamics and the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal: a review of pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging. Front Neurosci. 12:238, 2018
                                          2. Covey DP et al: Endocannabinoid modulation of dopamine neurotransmission. Neuropharmacology. 124:52-61, 2017
                                          3. Harmer CJ et al: How do antidepressants work? New perspectives for refining future treatment approaches. Lancet Psychiatry. 4(5):409-18, 2017
                                          4. Lu HC et al: An introduction to the endogenous cannabinoid system. Biol Psychiatry. 79(7):516-25, 2016
                                          5. North RA: P2X receptors. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 371(1700), 2016
                                          6. Shamay-Tsoory S et al: Understanding the oxytocin system and its relevance to psychiatry. Biol Psychiatry. 79(3):150-2, 2016
                                          7. Barth C et al: Sex hormones affect neurotransmitters and shape the adult female brain during hormonal transition periods. Front Neurosci. 9:37, 2015
                                          8. Berridge KC et al: Pleasure systems in the brain. Neuron. 86(3):646-64, 2015
                                          9. Herring BE et al: Is aspartate an excitatory neurotransmitter? J Neurosci. 35(28):10168-71, 2015
                                          10. Tuominen L et al: Mapping neurotransmitter networks with PET: an example on serotonin and opioid systems. Hum Brain Mapp. 35(5):1875-84, 2014
                                          11. Benarroch EE: Endogenous opioid systems: current concepts and clinical correlations. Neurology. 79(8):807-14, 2012
                                          12. Khakh BS et al: Neuromodulation by extracellular ATP and P2X receptors in the CNS. Neuron. 76(1):51-69, 2012
                                          13. Montoya ER et al: Testosterone, cortisol, and serotonin as key regulators of social aggression: a review and theoretical perspective. Motiv Emot. 36(1):65-73, 2012
                                          14. Charnay Y et al: Brain serotonergic circuitries. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 12(4):471-87, 2010
                                          15. Nuutinen S et al: Histamine in neurotransmission and brain diseases. Adv Exp Med Biol. 709:95-107, 2010
                                          16. Berridge KC et al: Dissecting components of reward: 'liking', 'wanting', and learning. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 9(1):65-73, 2009
                                          17. Langmead CJ et al: Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors as CNS drug targets. Pharmacol Ther. 117(2):232-43, 2008
                                          18. Wang HY et al: beta-Amyloid(1-42) binds to alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor with high affinity. Implications for Alzheimer's disease pathology. J Biol Chem. 275(8):5626-32, 2000
                                          19. Fonnum F: Glutamate: a neurotransmitter in mammalian brain. J Neurochem. 42(1):1-11, 1984