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Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma of Head and Neck
Patricia A. Hudgins, MD, FACR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL)
            • Definitions

              • Lymphoma is heterogeneous lymphoreticular system malignancy
                • Over 50 types of lymphoma have been described based on histologic & molecular criteria
              • All lymphomas designated Hodgkin (HL) or NHL
                • HL: Neoplastic Reed-Sternberg cells with mixed inflammatory cell mass
                • NHL: Multiple subtypes of B-cell, T-cell, or NK-cell lymphomas/leukemias
                  • Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma most common (30%)
              • H&N NHL has multiple forms
                • Nodal, nonnodal lymphatic (tonsils, adenoids, lingual lymphoid), extralymphatic (e.g., thyroid, sinuses)

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Edge SB et al: Lymphoid neoplasms. AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York: Springer. 599-615, 2010
                                      2. El-Galaly TC et al: Imaging of non-Hodgkin lymphomas: diagnosis and response-adapted strategies. Cancer Treat Res. 165:125-46, 2015
                                      3. Johnson SA et al: Imaging for staging and response assessment in lymphoma. Radiology. 276(2):323-38, 2015
                                      4. Cheson BD et al: Recommendations for initial evaluation, staging, and response assessment of Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: the Lugano classification. J Clin Oncol. 32(27):3059-68, 2014
                                      5. Kato H et al: Evaluation of imaging findings differentiating extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma from squamous cell carcinoma in naso- and oropharynx. Clin Imaging. 37(4):657-63, 2013
                                      6. Pina S et al: Burkitt lymphoma as a cause of carotidynia: imaging features. A case report. Neuroradiol J. 26(1):18-20, 2013
                                      7. Sandner A et al: Primary extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the orbital and paranasal region-a retrospective study. Eur J Radiol. 82(2):302-8, 2013
                                      8. Mnejja M et al: B-cell lymphoma of the mandible. Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis. 127(5):186-8, 2010
                                      9. Paes FM et al: FDG PET/CT of extranodal involvement in non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Hodgkin disease. Radiographics. 30(1):269-91, 2010
                                      10. Siddiqui NA et al: Imaging characteristics of primary laryngeal lymphoma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 31(7):1261-5, 2010
                                      11. Weiler-Sagie M et al: (18)F-FDG avidity in lymphoma readdressed: a study of 766 patients. J Nucl Med. 51(1):25-30, 2010
                                      12. Gaini RM et al: Lymphomas of head and neck in pediatric patients. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 73 Suppl 1:S65-70, 2009
                                      13. Rossi M et al: Computed tomography-based tumor volume in non-Hodgkin lymphoma: clinical correlation and comparison with magnetic resonance imaging. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 33(4):641-9, 2009
                                      14. Abramson SJ et al: Imaging of pediatric lymphomas. Radiol Clin North Am. 46(2):313-38, ix, 2008
                                      15. Haque S et al: Imaging of lymphoma of the central nervous system, spine, and orbit. Radiol Clin North Am. 46(2):339-61, ix, 2008
                                      16. Matasar MJ et al: Overview of lymphoma diagnosis and management. Radiol Clin North Am. 46(2):175-98, vii, 2008
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                            • Pathology

                                              • Clinical Issues

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Abbreviations

                                                  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL)
                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Lymphoma is heterogeneous lymphoreticular system malignancy
                                                    • Over 50 types of lymphoma have been described based on histologic & molecular criteria
                                                  • All lymphomas designated Hodgkin (HL) or NHL
                                                    • HL: Neoplastic Reed-Sternberg cells with mixed inflammatory cell mass
                                                    • NHL: Multiple subtypes of B-cell, T-cell, or NK-cell lymphomas/leukemias
                                                      • Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma most common (30%)
                                                  • H&N NHL has multiple forms
                                                    • Nodal, nonnodal lymphatic (tonsils, adenoids, lingual lymphoid), extralymphatic (e.g., thyroid, sinuses)

                                                IMAGING

                                                • General Features

                                                  • CT Findings

                                                    • MR Findings

                                                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                • Presentation

                                                                  • Demographics

                                                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                      • Treatment

                                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Edge SB et al: Lymphoid neoplasms. AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York: Springer. 599-615, 2010
                                                                          2. El-Galaly TC et al: Imaging of non-Hodgkin lymphomas: diagnosis and response-adapted strategies. Cancer Treat Res. 165:125-46, 2015
                                                                          3. Johnson SA et al: Imaging for staging and response assessment in lymphoma. Radiology. 276(2):323-38, 2015
                                                                          4. Cheson BD et al: Recommendations for initial evaluation, staging, and response assessment of Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: the Lugano classification. J Clin Oncol. 32(27):3059-68, 2014
                                                                          5. Kato H et al: Evaluation of imaging findings differentiating extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma from squamous cell carcinoma in naso- and oropharynx. Clin Imaging. 37(4):657-63, 2013
                                                                          6. Pina S et al: Burkitt lymphoma as a cause of carotidynia: imaging features. A case report. Neuroradiol J. 26(1):18-20, 2013
                                                                          7. Sandner A et al: Primary extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the orbital and paranasal region-a retrospective study. Eur J Radiol. 82(2):302-8, 2013
                                                                          8. Mnejja M et al: B-cell lymphoma of the mandible. Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis. 127(5):186-8, 2010
                                                                          9. Paes FM et al: FDG PET/CT of extranodal involvement in non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Hodgkin disease. Radiographics. 30(1):269-91, 2010
                                                                          10. Siddiqui NA et al: Imaging characteristics of primary laryngeal lymphoma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 31(7):1261-5, 2010
                                                                          11. Weiler-Sagie M et al: (18)F-FDG avidity in lymphoma readdressed: a study of 766 patients. J Nucl Med. 51(1):25-30, 2010
                                                                          12. Gaini RM et al: Lymphomas of head and neck in pediatric patients. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 73 Suppl 1:S65-70, 2009
                                                                          13. Rossi M et al: Computed tomography-based tumor volume in non-Hodgkin lymphoma: clinical correlation and comparison with magnetic resonance imaging. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 33(4):641-9, 2009
                                                                          14. Abramson SJ et al: Imaging of pediatric lymphomas. Radiol Clin North Am. 46(2):313-38, ix, 2008
                                                                          15. Haque S et al: Imaging of lymphoma of the central nervous system, spine, and orbit. Radiol Clin North Am. 46(2):339-61, ix, 2008
                                                                          16. Matasar MJ et al: Overview of lymphoma diagnosis and management. Radiol Clin North Am. 46(2):175-98, vii, 2008