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Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma of Thyroid
Jaclyn Thiessen, MD; Luke N. Ledbetter, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) of thyroid
              • Synonyms

                • Primary thyroid lymphoma
              • Definitions

                • Extranodal, extralymphatic lymphoma originating from thyroid gland
                  • Excludes systemic NHL that secondarily involves thyroid

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                        • Imaging Recommendations

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            • Approach to Diagnosis

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Yang L et al: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the differential diagnosis of primary thyroid lymphoma and nodular Hashimoto's thyroiditis in a background of heterogeneous parenchyma. Front Oncol. 10:597975, 2020
                                              2. Luo J et al: Is ultrasound combined with computed tomography useful for distinguishing between primary thyroid lymphoma and Hashimoto's thyroiditis? Endokrynol Pol. 70(6):463-8, 2019
                                              3. Spielman DB et al: Rare thyroid malignancies: an overview for the oncologist. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 29(5):298-306, 2017
                                              4. Sharma A et al: Clinical presentation and diagnostic challenges of thyroid lymphoma: a cohort study. Thyroid. 26(8):1061-7, 2016
                                              5. Wang Z et al: Primary thyroid lymphoma has different sonographic and color Doppler features compared to nodular goiter. J Ultrasound Med. 34(2):317-23, 2015
                                              6. Xia Y et al: Sonographic appearance of primary thyroid lymphoma-preliminary experience. PLoS One. 9(12):e114080, 2014
                                              7. Stein SA et al: Primary thyroid lymphoma: a clinical review. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 98(8):3131-8, 2013
                                              8. Walsh S et al: Thyroid lymphoma: recent advances in diagnosis and optimal management strategies. Oncologist. 18(9):994-1003, 2013
                                              9. Graff-Baker A et al: Primary thyroid lymphoma: a review of recent developments in diagnosis and histology-driven treatment. Curr Opin Oncol. 22(1):17-22, 2010
                                              10. Sarinah B et al: Primary lymphoma of the thyroid: diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Asian J Surg. 33(1):20-4, 2010
                                              11. Straus DJ: Primary thyroid lymphoma, a rare disease with a good treatment outcome. J Surg Oncol. 101(7):543-4, 2010
                                              12. Sun TQ et al: Characteristics and prognosis of primary thyroid non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Chinese patients. J Surg Oncol. 101(7):545-50, 2010
                                              13. Basu S et al: Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and PET/computed tomography imaging characteristics of thyroid lymphoma and their potential clinical utility. Acta Radiol. 50(2):201-4, 2009
                                              14. Graff-Baker A et al: Prognosis of primary thyroid lymphoma: demographic, clinical, and pathologic predictors of survival in 1,408 cases. Surgery. 146(6):1105-15, 2009
                                              15. Hwang YC et al: Clinical characteristics of primary thyroid lymphoma in Koreans. Endocr J. 56(3):399-405, 2009
                                              16. Taylor AJ et al: Risk of thyroid cancer in survivors of childhood cancer: results from the British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Int J Cancer. 125(10):2400-5, 2009
                                              17. Ota H et al: Usefulness of ultrasonography for diagnosis of malignant lymphoma of the thyroid. Thyroid. 16(10):983-7, 2006
                                              18. Kim HC et al: Primary thyroid lymphoma: CT findings. Eur J Radiol. 46(3):233-9, 2003
                                              19. Cha C et al: Primary thyroid lymphoma: can the diagnosis be made solely by fine-needle aspiration? Ann Surg Oncol. 9(3):298-302, 2002
                                              20. Honda N et al: Scintigraphic findings of MALT lymphoma of the thyroid. Ann Nucl Med. 16(4):289-92, 2002
                                              21. Ishikawa H et al: Comparison of primary thyroid lymphoma with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma on computed tomographic imaging. Radiat Med. 20(1):9-15, 2002
                                              22. Sippel RS et al: Palliative thyroidectomy for malignant lymphoma of the thyroid. Ann Surg Oncol. 9(9):907-11, 2002
                                              23. Thieblemont C et al: Primary thyroid lymphoma is a heterogeneous disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 87(1):105-11, 2002
                                              24. Wirtzfeld DA et al: Clinical presentation and treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid gland. Ann Surg Oncol. 8(4):338-41, 2001
                                              25. Haciyanli M et al: Primary non-Hodgkin's T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland complicating Hashimoto's thyroiditis: case report. Thyroid. 10(8):717-20, 2000
                                              26. Takashima S et al: Secondary malignant lymphoma which simulated primary thyroid cancer. Clin Imaging. 24(3):162-5, 2000
                                              27. Weber AL et al: The thyroid and parathyroid glands. CT and MR imaging and correlation with pathology and clinical findings. Radiol Clin North Am. 38(5):1105-29, 2000
                                              Related Anatomy
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                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                    • Pathology

                                                      • Clinical Issues

                                                        • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                                          • Abbreviations

                                                            • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) of thyroid
                                                          • Synonyms

                                                            • Primary thyroid lymphoma
                                                          • Definitions

                                                            • Extranodal, extralymphatic lymphoma originating from thyroid gland
                                                              • Excludes systemic NHL that secondarily involves thyroid

                                                          IMAGING

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • CT Findings

                                                              • MR Findings

                                                                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                                        • General Features

                                                                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                              • Presentation

                                                                                • Demographics

                                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                        • Approach to Diagnosis

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Yang L et al: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the differential diagnosis of primary thyroid lymphoma and nodular Hashimoto's thyroiditis in a background of heterogeneous parenchyma. Front Oncol. 10:597975, 2020
                                                                                          2. Luo J et al: Is ultrasound combined with computed tomography useful for distinguishing between primary thyroid lymphoma and Hashimoto's thyroiditis? Endokrynol Pol. 70(6):463-8, 2019
                                                                                          3. Spielman DB et al: Rare thyroid malignancies: an overview for the oncologist. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 29(5):298-306, 2017
                                                                                          4. Sharma A et al: Clinical presentation and diagnostic challenges of thyroid lymphoma: a cohort study. Thyroid. 26(8):1061-7, 2016
                                                                                          5. Wang Z et al: Primary thyroid lymphoma has different sonographic and color Doppler features compared to nodular goiter. J Ultrasound Med. 34(2):317-23, 2015
                                                                                          6. Xia Y et al: Sonographic appearance of primary thyroid lymphoma-preliminary experience. PLoS One. 9(12):e114080, 2014
                                                                                          7. Stein SA et al: Primary thyroid lymphoma: a clinical review. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 98(8):3131-8, 2013
                                                                                          8. Walsh S et al: Thyroid lymphoma: recent advances in diagnosis and optimal management strategies. Oncologist. 18(9):994-1003, 2013
                                                                                          9. Graff-Baker A et al: Primary thyroid lymphoma: a review of recent developments in diagnosis and histology-driven treatment. Curr Opin Oncol. 22(1):17-22, 2010
                                                                                          10. Sarinah B et al: Primary lymphoma of the thyroid: diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Asian J Surg. 33(1):20-4, 2010
                                                                                          11. Straus DJ: Primary thyroid lymphoma, a rare disease with a good treatment outcome. J Surg Oncol. 101(7):543-4, 2010
                                                                                          12. Sun TQ et al: Characteristics and prognosis of primary thyroid non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Chinese patients. J Surg Oncol. 101(7):545-50, 2010
                                                                                          13. Basu S et al: Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and PET/computed tomography imaging characteristics of thyroid lymphoma and their potential clinical utility. Acta Radiol. 50(2):201-4, 2009
                                                                                          14. Graff-Baker A et al: Prognosis of primary thyroid lymphoma: demographic, clinical, and pathologic predictors of survival in 1,408 cases. Surgery. 146(6):1105-15, 2009
                                                                                          15. Hwang YC et al: Clinical characteristics of primary thyroid lymphoma in Koreans. Endocr J. 56(3):399-405, 2009
                                                                                          16. Taylor AJ et al: Risk of thyroid cancer in survivors of childhood cancer: results from the British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Int J Cancer. 125(10):2400-5, 2009
                                                                                          17. Ota H et al: Usefulness of ultrasonography for diagnosis of malignant lymphoma of the thyroid. Thyroid. 16(10):983-7, 2006
                                                                                          18. Kim HC et al: Primary thyroid lymphoma: CT findings. Eur J Radiol. 46(3):233-9, 2003
                                                                                          19. Cha C et al: Primary thyroid lymphoma: can the diagnosis be made solely by fine-needle aspiration? Ann Surg Oncol. 9(3):298-302, 2002
                                                                                          20. Honda N et al: Scintigraphic findings of MALT lymphoma of the thyroid. Ann Nucl Med. 16(4):289-92, 2002
                                                                                          21. Ishikawa H et al: Comparison of primary thyroid lymphoma with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma on computed tomographic imaging. Radiat Med. 20(1):9-15, 2002
                                                                                          22. Sippel RS et al: Palliative thyroidectomy for malignant lymphoma of the thyroid. Ann Surg Oncol. 9(9):907-11, 2002
                                                                                          23. Thieblemont C et al: Primary thyroid lymphoma is a heterogeneous disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 87(1):105-11, 2002
                                                                                          24. Wirtzfeld DA et al: Clinical presentation and treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid gland. Ann Surg Oncol. 8(4):338-41, 2001
                                                                                          25. Haciyanli M et al: Primary non-Hodgkin's T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland complicating Hashimoto's thyroiditis: case report. Thyroid. 10(8):717-20, 2000
                                                                                          26. Takashima S et al: Secondary malignant lymphoma which simulated primary thyroid cancer. Clin Imaging. 24(3):162-5, 2000
                                                                                          27. Weber AL et al: The thyroid and parathyroid glands. CT and MR imaging and correlation with pathology and clinical findings. Radiol Clin North Am. 38(5):1105-29, 2000