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Nonpyogenic (Granulomatous) Infection, Craniovertebral Juncation
Cheryl A. Petersilge, MD, MBA
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Definitions

              • Infection characterized by formation of caseating &/or noncaseating granulomas
                • Typical organisms include mycobacteria and fungi

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            • Microscopic Features

                              • Organisms

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Arora S et al: The results of nonoperative treatment of craniovertebral junction tuberculosis: a review of twenty-six cases. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 93(6):540-7, 2011
                                      2. Kwon JW et al: MRI findings of Aspergillus spondylitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 197(5):W919-23, 2011
                                      3. Nomura M et al: Atypical osteomyelitis of the skull base and craniovertebral junction caused by Actinomyces infection--case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 51(1):64-6, 2011
                                      4. Sabat D et al: Os odontoideum complicating craniovertebral junction tuberculosis: a case report. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 36(12):E814-8, 2011
                                      5. Goel A et al: Lateral atlantoaxial facetal dislocation in craniovertebral region tuberculosis: report of a case and analysis of an alternative treatment. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 152(4):709-12, 2010
                                      6. Hoshino C et al: Craniovertebral junction tuberculosis: a case report and review of the literature. J Infect Chemother. 16(4):288-91, 2010
                                      7. Ould-Slimane M et al: Odontoid process pathologic fracture in spinal tuberculosis. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 96(1):80-4, 2010
                                      8. Skaf GS et al: Non-pyogenic infections of the spine. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 36(2):99-105, 2010
                                      9. Chelli Bouaziz M et al: Spinal brucellosis: a review. Skeletal Radiol. 37(9):785-90, 2008
                                      10. Ugarriza LF et al: Brucellar spinal epidural abscesses. Analysis of eleven cases. Br J Neurosurg. 19(3):235-40, 2005
                                      11. Kotil K et al: Craniovertebral junction Pott's disease. Br J Neurosurg. 18(1):49-55, 2004
                                      12. Krishnan A et al: Craniovertebral junction tuberculosis: a review of 29 cases. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 25(2):171-6, 2001
                                      13. Lifeso R: Atlanto-axial tuberculosis in adults. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 69(2):183-7, 1987
                                      14. Lifeso RM et al: Spinal brucellosis. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 67(3):345-51, 1985
                                      15. Weaver P et al: The radiological diagnosis of tuberculosis of the adult spine. Skeletal Radiol. 12(3):178-86, 1984
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                            • Pathology

                                              • Clinical Issues

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Infection characterized by formation of caseating &/or noncaseating granulomas
                                                    • Typical organisms include mycobacteria and fungi

                                                IMAGING

                                                • General Features

                                                  • Radiographic Findings

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • MR Findings

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                • Microscopic Features

                                                                  • Organisms

                                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                    • Presentation

                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Arora S et al: The results of nonoperative treatment of craniovertebral junction tuberculosis: a review of twenty-six cases. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 93(6):540-7, 2011
                                                                          2. Kwon JW et al: MRI findings of Aspergillus spondylitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 197(5):W919-23, 2011
                                                                          3. Nomura M et al: Atypical osteomyelitis of the skull base and craniovertebral junction caused by Actinomyces infection--case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 51(1):64-6, 2011
                                                                          4. Sabat D et al: Os odontoideum complicating craniovertebral junction tuberculosis: a case report. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 36(12):E814-8, 2011
                                                                          5. Goel A et al: Lateral atlantoaxial facetal dislocation in craniovertebral region tuberculosis: report of a case and analysis of an alternative treatment. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 152(4):709-12, 2010
                                                                          6. Hoshino C et al: Craniovertebral junction tuberculosis: a case report and review of the literature. J Infect Chemother. 16(4):288-91, 2010
                                                                          7. Ould-Slimane M et al: Odontoid process pathologic fracture in spinal tuberculosis. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 96(1):80-4, 2010
                                                                          8. Skaf GS et al: Non-pyogenic infections of the spine. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 36(2):99-105, 2010
                                                                          9. Chelli Bouaziz M et al: Spinal brucellosis: a review. Skeletal Radiol. 37(9):785-90, 2008
                                                                          10. Ugarriza LF et al: Brucellar spinal epidural abscesses. Analysis of eleven cases. Br J Neurosurg. 19(3):235-40, 2005
                                                                          11. Kotil K et al: Craniovertebral junction Pott's disease. Br J Neurosurg. 18(1):49-55, 2004
                                                                          12. Krishnan A et al: Craniovertebral junction tuberculosis: a review of 29 cases. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 25(2):171-6, 2001
                                                                          13. Lifeso R: Atlanto-axial tuberculosis in adults. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 69(2):183-7, 1987
                                                                          14. Lifeso RM et al: Spinal brucellosis. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 67(3):345-51, 1985
                                                                          15. Weaver P et al: The radiological diagnosis of tuberculosis of the adult spine. Skeletal Radiol. 12(3):178-86, 1984