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Nontuberculous *Mycobacterium* Nodes
Nicholas A. Koontz, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • Nontuberculous Mycobacterium (NTM)
              • Synonyms

                • Nontuberculous mycobacterial infection, NTM lymphadenitis
              • Definitions

                • Chronic unilateral neck adenitis with nontuberculous Mycobacterium species
                • Most often Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  • Radiographic Findings

                    • CT Findings

                      • MR Findings

                        • Ultrasonographic Findings

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Consider

                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                            • Reporting Tips

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Neven Q et al: Long-term outcome of surgical excision for treatment of cervicofacial granulomatous lymphadenitis in children. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 277(6):1785-92, 2020
                                              2. Park SG et al: Cluster of lymphadenitis due to nontuberculous Mycobacterium in children and adolescents 8-15 years of age. J Korean Med Sci. 34(46):e302, 2019
                                              3. Loizos A et al: Lymphadenitis by non-tuberculous mycobacteria in children. Pediatr Int. 60(12):1062-7, 2018
                                              4. Rives P et al: Cervicofacial non-tuberculous mycobacteria: a report of 30 cases. Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis. 133(2):107-11, 2016
                                              5. Gonzalez C et al: Complex nontuberculous mycobacterial cervicofacial lymphadenitis: what is the optimal approach? Laryngoscope. 126(7):1677-80, 2015
                                              6. López-Varela E et al: Non-tuberculous mycobacteria in children: muddying the waters of tuberculosis diagnosis. Lancet Respir Med. 3(3):244-56, 2015
                                              7. Zimmermann P et al: The management of non-tuberculous cervicofacial lymphadenitis in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Infect. 71(1):9-18, 2015
                                              8. Hermansen TS et al: Non-tuberculous mycobacteria and the performance of interferon gamma release assays in Denmark. PLoS One. 9(4):e93986, 2014
                                              9. Pilkington EF et al: Treatment patterns of pediatric nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) cervical lymphadenitis as reported by nationwide surveys of pediatric otolaryngology and infectious disease societies. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 74(4):343-6, 2010
                                              10. Fitzhugh VA et al: Mycobacterium avium complex infection in a neck abscess: a diagnostic pitfall in fine-needle aspiration biopsy of head and neck lesions. Diagn Cytopathol. 37(7):527-30, 2009
                                              11. Esparcia O et al: Lymphadenopathy caused by Mycobacterium colombiense. J Clin Microbiol. 46(5):1885-7, 2008
                                              12. Gittinger FS et al: Non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection of the parotid gland in an immunosuppressed adult. J Med Microbiol. 57(Pt 4):536-9, 2008
                                              13. Linmans JJ et al: Mycobacterium abscessus, an uncommon cause of chronic otitis media: a case report and literature review. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 134(9):1004-6, 2008
                                              14. Rustom IK et al: Paediatric neck abscesses: microbiology and management. J Laryngol Otol. 122(5):480-4, 2008
                                              15. Tremblay V et al: Nontuberculous mycobacterial cervicofacial adenitis in children: epidemiologic study. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 37(5):616-22, 2008
                                              16. Zeharia A et al: Management of nontuberculous mycobacteria-induced cervical lymphadenitis with observation alone. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 27(10):920-2, 2008
                                              17. Hogan M et al: Atypical mycobacterial cervical lymphadenitis with extensive local spread: a surgical disease. Pediatr Surg Int. 21(9):758-60, 2005
                                              18. Luong A et al: Antibiotic therapy for nontuberculous mycobacterial cervicofacial lymphadenitis. Laryngoscope. 115(10):1746-51, 2005
                                              19. Hanck C et al: Imaging appearance of nontuberculous mycobacterial infection of the neck. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 25(2):349; author reply 349-50, 2004
                                              20. Redaelli de Zinis LO et al: Temporal bone infection caused by atypical mycobacterium: case report and review of the literature. Otol Neurotol. 24(6):843-9, 2003
                                              21. Flint D et al: Cervical lymphadenitis due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria: surgical treatment and review. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 53(3):187-94, 2000
                                              22. Hazra R et al: Lymphadenitis due to nontuberculous mycobacteria in children: presentation and response to therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 28(1):123-9, 1999
                                              23. Robson CD et al: Nontuberculous mycobacterial infection of the head and neck in immunocompetent children: CT and MR findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 20(10):1829-35, 1999
                                              Related Anatomy
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                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                    • Pathology

                                                      • Clinical Issues

                                                        • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                                          • Abbreviations

                                                            • Nontuberculous Mycobacterium (NTM)
                                                          • Synonyms

                                                            • Nontuberculous mycobacterial infection, NTM lymphadenitis
                                                          • Definitions

                                                            • Chronic unilateral neck adenitis with nontuberculous Mycobacterium species
                                                            • Most often Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex

                                                          IMAGING

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                                              • Radiographic Findings

                                                                • CT Findings

                                                                  • MR Findings

                                                                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                        PATHOLOGY

                                                                        • General Features

                                                                          • Microscopic Features

                                                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                            • Presentation

                                                                              • Demographics

                                                                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                  • Treatment

                                                                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                    • Consider

                                                                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                        • Reporting Tips

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Neven Q et al: Long-term outcome of surgical excision for treatment of cervicofacial granulomatous lymphadenitis in children. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 277(6):1785-92, 2020
                                                                                          2. Park SG et al: Cluster of lymphadenitis due to nontuberculous Mycobacterium in children and adolescents 8-15 years of age. J Korean Med Sci. 34(46):e302, 2019
                                                                                          3. Loizos A et al: Lymphadenitis by non-tuberculous mycobacteria in children. Pediatr Int. 60(12):1062-7, 2018
                                                                                          4. Rives P et al: Cervicofacial non-tuberculous mycobacteria: a report of 30 cases. Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis. 133(2):107-11, 2016
                                                                                          5. Gonzalez C et al: Complex nontuberculous mycobacterial cervicofacial lymphadenitis: what is the optimal approach? Laryngoscope. 126(7):1677-80, 2015
                                                                                          6. López-Varela E et al: Non-tuberculous mycobacteria in children: muddying the waters of tuberculosis diagnosis. Lancet Respir Med. 3(3):244-56, 2015
                                                                                          7. Zimmermann P et al: The management of non-tuberculous cervicofacial lymphadenitis in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Infect. 71(1):9-18, 2015
                                                                                          8. Hermansen TS et al: Non-tuberculous mycobacteria and the performance of interferon gamma release assays in Denmark. PLoS One. 9(4):e93986, 2014
                                                                                          9. Pilkington EF et al: Treatment patterns of pediatric nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) cervical lymphadenitis as reported by nationwide surveys of pediatric otolaryngology and infectious disease societies. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 74(4):343-6, 2010
                                                                                          10. Fitzhugh VA et al: Mycobacterium avium complex infection in a neck abscess: a diagnostic pitfall in fine-needle aspiration biopsy of head and neck lesions. Diagn Cytopathol. 37(7):527-30, 2009
                                                                                          11. Esparcia O et al: Lymphadenopathy caused by Mycobacterium colombiense. J Clin Microbiol. 46(5):1885-7, 2008
                                                                                          12. Gittinger FS et al: Non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection of the parotid gland in an immunosuppressed adult. J Med Microbiol. 57(Pt 4):536-9, 2008
                                                                                          13. Linmans JJ et al: Mycobacterium abscessus, an uncommon cause of chronic otitis media: a case report and literature review. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 134(9):1004-6, 2008
                                                                                          14. Rustom IK et al: Paediatric neck abscesses: microbiology and management. J Laryngol Otol. 122(5):480-4, 2008
                                                                                          15. Tremblay V et al: Nontuberculous mycobacterial cervicofacial adenitis in children: epidemiologic study. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 37(5):616-22, 2008
                                                                                          16. Zeharia A et al: Management of nontuberculous mycobacteria-induced cervical lymphadenitis with observation alone. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 27(10):920-2, 2008
                                                                                          17. Hogan M et al: Atypical mycobacterial cervical lymphadenitis with extensive local spread: a surgical disease. Pediatr Surg Int. 21(9):758-60, 2005
                                                                                          18. Luong A et al: Antibiotic therapy for nontuberculous mycobacterial cervicofacial lymphadenitis. Laryngoscope. 115(10):1746-51, 2005
                                                                                          19. Hanck C et al: Imaging appearance of nontuberculous mycobacterial infection of the neck. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 25(2):349; author reply 349-50, 2004
                                                                                          20. Redaelli de Zinis LO et al: Temporal bone infection caused by atypical mycobacterium: case report and review of the literature. Otol Neurotol. 24(6):843-9, 2003
                                                                                          21. Flint D et al: Cervical lymphadenitis due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria: surgical treatment and review. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 53(3):187-94, 2000
                                                                                          22. Hazra R et al: Lymphadenitis due to nontuberculous mycobacteria in children: presentation and response to therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 28(1):123-9, 1999
                                                                                          23. Robson CD et al: Nontuberculous mycobacterial infection of the head and neck in immunocompetent children: CT and MR findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 20(10):1829-35, 1999