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Normal Myelination
Blaise V. Jones, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Diagnostic Checklist

      TERMINOLOGY

      • Synonyms

        • Myelin maturation, white matter (WM) development
      • Definitions

        • Process of myelin sheath development around axons throughout CNS
          • Begins in 5th fetal month & continues throughout life

      IMAGING

      • General Features

        • CT Findings

          • MR Findings

            • Ultrasonographic Findings

              • Imaging Recommendations

                PATHOLOGY

                • General Features

                  • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                    • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                      • Microscopic Features

                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                        • Demographics

                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                            • Treatment

                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                              • Consider

                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                  Selected References

                                  1. Bhatia V et al: MRI in normal myelination: a pictorial review. Curr Pediatr Rev. ePub, 2021
                                  2. Barkovich MJ et al: MR imaging of normal brain development. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 29(3):325-37, 2019
                                  3. Uda S et al: Normal development of human brain white matter from infancy to early adulthood: a diffusion tensor imaging study. Dev Neurosci. 37(2):182-94, 2015
                                  4. Branson HM: Normal myelination: a practical pictorial review. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 23(2):183-95, 2013
                                  5. Singhi S et al: Diffusion tensor imaging of the maturing paediatric cervical spinal cord: from the neonate to the young adult. J Neuroradiol. 39(3):142-8, 2012
                                  6. Welker KM et al: Assessment of normal myelination with magnetic resonance imaging. Semin Neurol. 32(1):15-28, 2012
                                  7. Zanin E et al: White matter maturation of normal human fetal brain. An in vivo diffusion tensor tractography study. Brain Behav. 1(2):95-108, 2011
                                  8. Girard N et al: Assessment of normal fetal brain maturation in utero by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Magn Reson Med. 56(4):768-75, 2006
                                  9. Jellison BJ et al: Diffusion tensor imaging of cerebral white matter: a pictorial review of physics, fiber tract anatomy, and tumor imaging patterns. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 25(3):356-69, 2004
                                  10. McGraw P et al: Evaluation of normal age-related changes in anisotropy during infancy and childhood as shown by diffusion tensor imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 179(6):1515-22, 2002
                                  11. Mukherjee P et al: Diffusion-tensor MR imaging of gray and white matter development during normal human brain maturation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 23(9):1445-56, 2002
                                  12. Barkovich AJ: Concepts of myelin and myelination in neuroradiology. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 21(6):1099-109, 2000
                                  13. Murakami JW et al: Normal myelination of the pediatric brain imaged with fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 20(8):1406-11, 1999
                                  14. Nakagawa H et al: Normal myelination of anatomic nerve fiber bundles: MR analysis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 19(6):1129-36, 1998
                                  15. Van der Knaap MS et al: Myelin & white matter. In Barkhof F. et al: Magnetic resonance of myelin, myelination, & myelin disorders. 2nd ed. Berlin: Springer, 1995
                                  Related Anatomy
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                                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                  References
                                  Tables

                                  Tables

                                  KEY FACTS

                                  • Imaging

                                    • Diagnostic Checklist

                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                      • Synonyms

                                        • Myelin maturation, white matter (WM) development
                                      • Definitions

                                        • Process of myelin sheath development around axons throughout CNS
                                          • Begins in 5th fetal month & continues throughout life

                                      IMAGING

                                      • General Features

                                        • CT Findings

                                          • MR Findings

                                            • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                • General Features

                                                  • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                    • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                      • Microscopic Features

                                                        CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                        • Demographics

                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                            • Treatment

                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                              • Consider

                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                  Selected References

                                                                  1. Bhatia V et al: MRI in normal myelination: a pictorial review. Curr Pediatr Rev. ePub, 2021
                                                                  2. Barkovich MJ et al: MR imaging of normal brain development. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 29(3):325-37, 2019
                                                                  3. Uda S et al: Normal development of human brain white matter from infancy to early adulthood: a diffusion tensor imaging study. Dev Neurosci. 37(2):182-94, 2015
                                                                  4. Branson HM: Normal myelination: a practical pictorial review. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 23(2):183-95, 2013
                                                                  5. Singhi S et al: Diffusion tensor imaging of the maturing paediatric cervical spinal cord: from the neonate to the young adult. J Neuroradiol. 39(3):142-8, 2012
                                                                  6. Welker KM et al: Assessment of normal myelination with magnetic resonance imaging. Semin Neurol. 32(1):15-28, 2012
                                                                  7. Zanin E et al: White matter maturation of normal human fetal brain. An in vivo diffusion tensor tractography study. Brain Behav. 1(2):95-108, 2011
                                                                  8. Girard N et al: Assessment of normal fetal brain maturation in utero by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Magn Reson Med. 56(4):768-75, 2006
                                                                  9. Jellison BJ et al: Diffusion tensor imaging of cerebral white matter: a pictorial review of physics, fiber tract anatomy, and tumor imaging patterns. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 25(3):356-69, 2004
                                                                  10. McGraw P et al: Evaluation of normal age-related changes in anisotropy during infancy and childhood as shown by diffusion tensor imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 179(6):1515-22, 2002
                                                                  11. Mukherjee P et al: Diffusion-tensor MR imaging of gray and white matter development during normal human brain maturation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 23(9):1445-56, 2002
                                                                  12. Barkovich AJ: Concepts of myelin and myelination in neuroradiology. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 21(6):1099-109, 2000
                                                                  13. Murakami JW et al: Normal myelination of the pediatric brain imaged with fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 20(8):1406-11, 1999
                                                                  14. Nakagawa H et al: Normal myelination of anatomic nerve fiber bundles: MR analysis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 19(6):1129-36, 1998
                                                                  15. Van der Knaap MS et al: Myelin & white matter. In Barkhof F. et al: Magnetic resonance of myelin, myelination, & myelin disorders. 2nd ed. Berlin: Springer, 1995