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Normal Myelination
Blaise V. Jones, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Clinical Issues

      • Diagnostic Checklist

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Synonyms

          • Myelin maturation, white matter development
        • Definitions

          • Process of myelin sheath development around axons throughout central nervous system
            • Begins in 5th fetal month & continues throughout life

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • CT Findings

            • MR Findings

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  PATHOLOGY

                  • General Features

                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                        • Microscopic Features

                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                          • Presentation

                            • Demographics

                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                • Treatment

                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                  • Consider

                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Uda S et al: Normal development of human brain white matter from infancy to early adulthood: a diffusion tensor imaging study. Dev Neurosci. 37(2):182-94, 2015
                                      2. Singhi S et al: Diffusion tensor imaging of the maturing paediatric cervical spinal cord: from the neonate to the young adult. J Neuroradiol. 39(3):142-8, 2012
                                      3. Welker KM et al: Assessment of normal myelination with magnetic resonance imaging. Semin Neurol. 32(1):15-28, 2012
                                      4. Zanin E et al: White matter maturation of normal human fetal brain. An in vivo diffusion tensor tractography study. Brain Behav. 1(2):95-108, 2011
                                      5. Girard N et al: Assessment of normal fetal brain maturation in utero by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Magn Reson Med. 56(4):768-75, 2006
                                      6. Jellison BJ et al: Diffusion tensor imaging of cerebral white matter: a pictorial review of physics, fiber tract anatomy, and tumor imaging patterns. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 25(3):356-69, 2004
                                      7. McGraw P et al: Evaluation of normal age-related changes in anisotropy during infancy and childhood as shown by diffusion tensor imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 179(6):1515-22, 2002
                                      8. Mukherjee P et al: Diffusion-tensor MR imaging of gray and white matter development during normal human brain maturation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 23(9):1445-56, 2002
                                      9. Barkovich AJ: Concepts of myelin and myelination in neuroradiology. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 21(6):1099-109, 2000
                                      10. Murakami JW et al: Normal myelination of the pediatric brain imaged with fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 20(8):1406-11, 1999
                                      11. Nakagawa H et al: Normal myelination of anatomic nerve fiber bundles: MR analysis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 19(6):1129-36, 1998
                                      12. Van der Knaap MS et al: Myelin & white matter. In Barkhof F. et al: Magnetic resonance of myelin, myelination, & myelin disorders. 2nd ed. Berlin: Springer, 1995
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Clinical Issues

                                          • Diagnostic Checklist

                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                            • Synonyms

                                              • Myelin maturation, white matter development
                                            • Definitions

                                              • Process of myelin sheath development around axons throughout central nervous system
                                                • Begins in 5th fetal month & continues throughout life

                                            IMAGING

                                            • General Features

                                              • CT Findings

                                                • MR Findings

                                                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                    • Imaging Recommendations

                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                              • Presentation

                                                                • Demographics

                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                      • Consider

                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Uda S et al: Normal development of human brain white matter from infancy to early adulthood: a diffusion tensor imaging study. Dev Neurosci. 37(2):182-94, 2015
                                                                          2. Singhi S et al: Diffusion tensor imaging of the maturing paediatric cervical spinal cord: from the neonate to the young adult. J Neuroradiol. 39(3):142-8, 2012
                                                                          3. Welker KM et al: Assessment of normal myelination with magnetic resonance imaging. Semin Neurol. 32(1):15-28, 2012
                                                                          4. Zanin E et al: White matter maturation of normal human fetal brain. An in vivo diffusion tensor tractography study. Brain Behav. 1(2):95-108, 2011
                                                                          5. Girard N et al: Assessment of normal fetal brain maturation in utero by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Magn Reson Med. 56(4):768-75, 2006
                                                                          6. Jellison BJ et al: Diffusion tensor imaging of cerebral white matter: a pictorial review of physics, fiber tract anatomy, and tumor imaging patterns. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 25(3):356-69, 2004
                                                                          7. McGraw P et al: Evaluation of normal age-related changes in anisotropy during infancy and childhood as shown by diffusion tensor imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 179(6):1515-22, 2002
                                                                          8. Mukherjee P et al: Diffusion-tensor MR imaging of gray and white matter development during normal human brain maturation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 23(9):1445-56, 2002
                                                                          9. Barkovich AJ: Concepts of myelin and myelination in neuroradiology. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 21(6):1099-109, 2000
                                                                          10. Murakami JW et al: Normal myelination of the pediatric brain imaged with fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 20(8):1406-11, 1999
                                                                          11. Nakagawa H et al: Normal myelination of anatomic nerve fiber bundles: MR analysis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 19(6):1129-36, 1998
                                                                          12. Van der Knaap MS et al: Myelin & white matter. In Barkhof F. et al: Magnetic resonance of myelin, myelination, & myelin disorders. 2nd ed. Berlin: Springer, 1995