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Ocular Melanoma
Daniel E. Meltzer, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Synonyms

              • Uveal melanoma, ocular adnexal melanoma, choroidal melanoma
            • Definitions

              • Primary malignancy of uveal tract

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Consider

                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Luke JJ et al: Biology of advanced uveal melanoma and next steps for clinical therapeutics. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 28(2):135-47, 2015
                                              2. Mashayekhi A et al: Primary transpupillary thermotherapy for choroidal melanoma in 391 cases: importance of risk factors in tumor control. Ophthalmology. 122(3):600-9, 2015
                                              3. Matsuo T et al: Clinicopathological correlation for the role of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomography in detection of choroidal malignant melanoma. Int J Clin Oncol. 19(2):230-9, 2014
                                              4. McCannel TA et al: Association of positive dual-modality positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging of primary choroidal melanoma with chromosome 3 loss and tumor size. Retina. 30(1):146-51, 2010
                                              5. Harbour JW: Molecular prognostic testing and individualized patient care in uveal melanoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 148(6):823-9, 2009
                                              6. Modorati G et al: Gamma knife radiosurgery for uveal melanoma: 12 years of experience. Br J Ophthalmol. 93(1):40-4, 2009
                                              7. Shildkrot Y et al: Update on posterior uveal melanoma: treatment of the eye and emerging strategies in the prognosis and treatment of metastatic disease. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 20(6):504-10, 2009
                                              8. Coupland SE et al: Routes of extraocular extension of uveal melanoma: risk factors and influence on survival probability. Ophthalmology. 115(10):1778-85, 2008
                                              9. Koutsandrea C et al: Metastasis rates and sites after treatment for choroidal melanoma by proton beam irradiation or by enucleation. Clin Ophthalmol. 2(4):989-95, 2008
                                              10. Krohn J et al: Posterior uveal melanoma. Distribution of the sites of origin and patterns of tumour extent in the ocular fundus. Br J Ophthalmol. 92(6):751-6, 2008
                                              11. Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study Group: The COMS randomized trial of iodine 125 brachytherapy for choroidal melanoma: V. Twelve-year mortality rates and prognostic factors: COMS report No. 28. Arch Ophthalmol. 124(12):1684-93, 2006
                                              12. Lindegaard J et al: Optic nerve invasion of uveal melanoma: clinical characteristics and metastatic pattern. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 47(8):3268-75, 2006
                                              13. Reddy S et al: PET/CT imaging: detection of choroidal melanoma. Br J Ophthalmol. 89(10):1265-9, 2005
                                              14. Shields CL et al: Primary transpupillary thermotherapy for small choroidal melanoma in 256 consecutive cases: outcomes and limitations. Ophthalmology. 109(2):225-34, 2002
                                              15. Lemke AJ et al: Uveal melanoma: correlation of histopathologic and radiologic findings by using thin-section MR imaging with a surface coil. Radiology. 210(3):775-83, 1999
                                              16. Mafee MF: Uveal melanoma, choroidal hemangioma, and simulating lesions. Role of MR imaging. Radiol Clin North Am. 36(6):1083-99, 1998
                                              17. Stroszczynski C et al: Choroidal hemangioma: MR findings and differentiation from uveal melanoma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 19(8):1441-7, 1998
                                              18. Hosten N et al: Uveal melanoma: detection of extraocular growth with MR imaging and US. Radiology. 202(1):61-7, 1997
                                              19. Tong KA et al: Ocular melanoma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 14(6):1359-66, 1993
                                              20. McLean IW et al: Modifications of Callender's classification of uveal melanoma at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. Am J Ophthalmol. 96(4):502-9, 1983
                                              Related Anatomy
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                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                    • Pathology

                                                      • Clinical Issues

                                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                                        • Synonyms

                                                          • Uveal melanoma, ocular adnexal melanoma, choroidal melanoma
                                                        • Definitions

                                                          • Primary malignancy of uveal tract

                                                        IMAGING

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • CT Findings

                                                            • MR Findings

                                                              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                                      • General Features

                                                                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                              • Presentation

                                                                                • Demographics

                                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                      • Consider

                                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Luke JJ et al: Biology of advanced uveal melanoma and next steps for clinical therapeutics. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 28(2):135-47, 2015
                                                                                          2. Mashayekhi A et al: Primary transpupillary thermotherapy for choroidal melanoma in 391 cases: importance of risk factors in tumor control. Ophthalmology. 122(3):600-9, 2015
                                                                                          3. Matsuo T et al: Clinicopathological correlation for the role of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomography in detection of choroidal malignant melanoma. Int J Clin Oncol. 19(2):230-9, 2014
                                                                                          4. McCannel TA et al: Association of positive dual-modality positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging of primary choroidal melanoma with chromosome 3 loss and tumor size. Retina. 30(1):146-51, 2010
                                                                                          5. Harbour JW: Molecular prognostic testing and individualized patient care in uveal melanoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 148(6):823-9, 2009
                                                                                          6. Modorati G et al: Gamma knife radiosurgery for uveal melanoma: 12 years of experience. Br J Ophthalmol. 93(1):40-4, 2009
                                                                                          7. Shildkrot Y et al: Update on posterior uveal melanoma: treatment of the eye and emerging strategies in the prognosis and treatment of metastatic disease. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 20(6):504-10, 2009
                                                                                          8. Coupland SE et al: Routes of extraocular extension of uveal melanoma: risk factors and influence on survival probability. Ophthalmology. 115(10):1778-85, 2008
                                                                                          9. Koutsandrea C et al: Metastasis rates and sites after treatment for choroidal melanoma by proton beam irradiation or by enucleation. Clin Ophthalmol. 2(4):989-95, 2008
                                                                                          10. Krohn J et al: Posterior uveal melanoma. Distribution of the sites of origin and patterns of tumour extent in the ocular fundus. Br J Ophthalmol. 92(6):751-6, 2008
                                                                                          11. Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study Group: The COMS randomized trial of iodine 125 brachytherapy for choroidal melanoma: V. Twelve-year mortality rates and prognostic factors: COMS report No. 28. Arch Ophthalmol. 124(12):1684-93, 2006
                                                                                          12. Lindegaard J et al: Optic nerve invasion of uveal melanoma: clinical characteristics and metastatic pattern. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 47(8):3268-75, 2006
                                                                                          13. Reddy S et al: PET/CT imaging: detection of choroidal melanoma. Br J Ophthalmol. 89(10):1265-9, 2005
                                                                                          14. Shields CL et al: Primary transpupillary thermotherapy for small choroidal melanoma in 256 consecutive cases: outcomes and limitations. Ophthalmology. 109(2):225-34, 2002
                                                                                          15. Lemke AJ et al: Uveal melanoma: correlation of histopathologic and radiologic findings by using thin-section MR imaging with a surface coil. Radiology. 210(3):775-83, 1999
                                                                                          16. Mafee MF: Uveal melanoma, choroidal hemangioma, and simulating lesions. Role of MR imaging. Radiol Clin North Am. 36(6):1083-99, 1998
                                                                                          17. Stroszczynski C et al: Choroidal hemangioma: MR findings and differentiation from uveal melanoma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 19(8):1441-7, 1998
                                                                                          18. Hosten N et al: Uveal melanoma: detection of extraocular growth with MR imaging and US. Radiology. 202(1):61-7, 1997
                                                                                          19. Tong KA et al: Ocular melanoma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 14(6):1359-66, 1993
                                                                                          20. McLean IW et al: Modifications of Callender's classification of uveal melanoma at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. Am J Ophthalmol. 96(4):502-9, 1983