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Ocular Toxocariasis
H. Christian Davidson, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Synonyms

                • Ocular larva migrans (OLM)
                • Sclerosing endophthalmitis
              • Definitions

                • Granulomatous retinal nematode infection

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Imaging Recommendations

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                        • Optical Coherence Tomography

                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                            PATHOLOGY

                            • General Features

                              • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                  • Parasitology

                                    • Laboratory Tests

                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                      • Presentation

                                        • Demographics

                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                            • Treatment

                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                Selected References

                                                1. Despreaux R et al: Ocular toxocariasis: clinical features and long-term visual outcomes in adult patients. Am J Ophthalmol. 166:162-8, 2016
                                                2. Martínez-Pulgarín DF et al: Ocular toxocariasis: new diagnostic and therapeutic perspectives. Recent Pat Antiinfect Drug Discov. 10(1):35-41, 2015
                                                3. Mansour AM et al: Adult ocular toxocariasis mimicking ciliary body malignancy. Case Rep Med. 2014:368907, 2014
                                                4. Woodhall DM et al: Toxocariasis: A Review for Pediatricians. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 3(2):154-9, 2014
                                                5. Ahn SJ et al: Cataract formation associated with ocular toxocariasis. J Cataract Refract Surg. 39(6):830-5, 2013
                                                6. Arevalo JF et al: Ocular toxocariasis. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 50(2):76-86, 2013
                                                7. Kim YJ et al: Toxocariasis of the optic disc. J Neuroophthalmol. 33(2):151-2, 2013
                                                8. Shields CL et al: Lesions simulating retinoblastoma (pseudoretinoblastoma) in 604 cases: results based on age at presentation. Ophthalmology. 120(2):311-6, 2013
                                                9. Campbell JP et al: Imaging in the diagnosis and management of ocular toxocariasis. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 52(4):145-53, 2012
                                                10. Rodman J et al: In vivo diagnostic imaging of ocular toxocariasis. Clin Exp Optom. 92(2):146-9, 2009
                                                11. Kadom N et al: Radiological reasoning: leukocoria in a child. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 191(3 Suppl):S40-4, 2008
                                                12. Stewart JM et al: Prevalence, clinical features, and causes of vision loss among patients with ocular toxocariasis. Retina. 25(8):1005-13, 2005
                                                13. Good B et al: Ocular toxocariasis in schoolchildren. Clin Infect Dis. 39(2):173-8, 2004
                                                14. Sabrosa NA et al: Nematode infections of the eye: toxocariasis and diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 12(6):450-4, 2001
                                                15. Kaufman LM et al: Retinoblastoma and simulating lesions. Role of CT, MR imaging and use of Gd-DTPA contrast enhancement. Radiol Clin North Am. 36(6):1101-17, 1998
                                                16. Overgaauw PA: Aspects of Toxocara epidemiology: human toxocarosis. Crit Rev Microbiol. 23(3):215-31, 1997
                                                17. Wan WL et al: Echographic characteristics of ocular toxocariasis. Ophthalmology. 98(1):28-32, 1991
                                                Related Anatomy
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                                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                                References
                                                Tables

                                                Tables

                                                KEY FACTS

                                                • Terminology

                                                  • Imaging

                                                    • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                      • Pathology

                                                        • Clinical Issues

                                                          • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                                            • Synonyms

                                                              • Ocular larva migrans (OLM)
                                                              • Sclerosing endophthalmitis
                                                            • Definitions

                                                              • Granulomatous retinal nematode infection

                                                            IMAGING

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                • CT Findings

                                                                  • MR Findings

                                                                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                      • Optical Coherence Tomography

                                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                                          • General Features

                                                                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                                • Parasitology

                                                                                  • Laboratory Tests

                                                                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                                    • Presentation

                                                                                      • Demographics

                                                                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                          • Treatment

                                                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                              Selected References

                                                                                              1. Despreaux R et al: Ocular toxocariasis: clinical features and long-term visual outcomes in adult patients. Am J Ophthalmol. 166:162-8, 2016
                                                                                              2. Martínez-Pulgarín DF et al: Ocular toxocariasis: new diagnostic and therapeutic perspectives. Recent Pat Antiinfect Drug Discov. 10(1):35-41, 2015
                                                                                              3. Mansour AM et al: Adult ocular toxocariasis mimicking ciliary body malignancy. Case Rep Med. 2014:368907, 2014
                                                                                              4. Woodhall DM et al: Toxocariasis: A Review for Pediatricians. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 3(2):154-9, 2014
                                                                                              5. Ahn SJ et al: Cataract formation associated with ocular toxocariasis. J Cataract Refract Surg. 39(6):830-5, 2013
                                                                                              6. Arevalo JF et al: Ocular toxocariasis. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 50(2):76-86, 2013
                                                                                              7. Kim YJ et al: Toxocariasis of the optic disc. J Neuroophthalmol. 33(2):151-2, 2013
                                                                                              8. Shields CL et al: Lesions simulating retinoblastoma (pseudoretinoblastoma) in 604 cases: results based on age at presentation. Ophthalmology. 120(2):311-6, 2013
                                                                                              9. Campbell JP et al: Imaging in the diagnosis and management of ocular toxocariasis. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 52(4):145-53, 2012
                                                                                              10. Rodman J et al: In vivo diagnostic imaging of ocular toxocariasis. Clin Exp Optom. 92(2):146-9, 2009
                                                                                              11. Kadom N et al: Radiological reasoning: leukocoria in a child. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 191(3 Suppl):S40-4, 2008
                                                                                              12. Stewart JM et al: Prevalence, clinical features, and causes of vision loss among patients with ocular toxocariasis. Retina. 25(8):1005-13, 2005
                                                                                              13. Good B et al: Ocular toxocariasis in schoolchildren. Clin Infect Dis. 39(2):173-8, 2004
                                                                                              14. Sabrosa NA et al: Nematode infections of the eye: toxocariasis and diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 12(6):450-4, 2001
                                                                                              15. Kaufman LM et al: Retinoblastoma and simulating lesions. Role of CT, MR imaging and use of Gd-DTPA contrast enhancement. Radiol Clin North Am. 36(6):1101-17, 1998
                                                                                              16. Overgaauw PA: Aspects of Toxocara epidemiology: human toxocarosis. Crit Rev Microbiol. 23(3):215-31, 1997
                                                                                              17. Wan WL et al: Echographic characteristics of ocular toxocariasis. Ophthalmology. 98(1):28-32, 1991