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Odontoid Hypoplasia/Aplasia
Kevin R. Moore, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Definitions

                • Congenital small or absent odontoid process

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        Selected References

                                        1. Jain N et al: CT and MR imaging of odontoid abnormalities: a pictorial review. Indian J Radiol Imaging. 26(1):108-19, 2016
                                        2. Myśliwiec A et al: Atlanto-axial instability in people with Down's syndrome and its Impact on the ability to perform sports activities - a review. J Hum Kinet. 48:17-24, 2015
                                        3. Souza PV et al: Basilar invagination in headache associated with physical exertion and recurrent torticollis. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 72(11):902-3, 2014
                                        4. Zygourakis CC et al: Delayed development of os odontoideum after traumatic cervical injury: support for a vascular etiology. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 7(2):201-4, 2011
                                        5. Stevens CA et al: Familial odontoid hypoplasia. Am J Med Genet A. 149A(6):1290-2, 2009
                                        6. Menezes AH: Craniocervical developmental anatomy and its implications. Childs Nerv Syst. 24(10):1109-22, 2008
                                        7. Ali FE et al: Cervical spine abnormalities associated with Down syndrome. Int Orthop. 30(4):284-9, 2006
                                        8. Westermeyer RR: Odontoid hypoplasia presenting as torticollis: a discussion of its significance. J Emerg Med. 24(1):15-8, 2003
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Terminology

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                              • Pathology

                                                • Clinical Issues

                                                  • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                                    • Definitions

                                                      • Congenital small or absent odontoid process

                                                    IMAGING

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • Radiographic Findings

                                                        • CT Findings

                                                          • MR Findings

                                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                                • General Features

                                                                  • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                    • Microscopic Features

                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                          • Treatment

                                                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                            • Consider

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. Jain N et al: CT and MR imaging of odontoid abnormalities: a pictorial review. Indian J Radiol Imaging. 26(1):108-19, 2016
                                                                              2. Myśliwiec A et al: Atlanto-axial instability in people with Down's syndrome and its Impact on the ability to perform sports activities - a review. J Hum Kinet. 48:17-24, 2015
                                                                              3. Souza PV et al: Basilar invagination in headache associated with physical exertion and recurrent torticollis. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 72(11):902-3, 2014
                                                                              4. Zygourakis CC et al: Delayed development of os odontoideum after traumatic cervical injury: support for a vascular etiology. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 7(2):201-4, 2011
                                                                              5. Stevens CA et al: Familial odontoid hypoplasia. Am J Med Genet A. 149A(6):1290-2, 2009
                                                                              6. Menezes AH: Craniocervical developmental anatomy and its implications. Childs Nerv Syst. 24(10):1109-22, 2008
                                                                              7. Ali FE et al: Cervical spine abnormalities associated with Down syndrome. Int Orthop. 30(4):284-9, 2006
                                                                              8. Westermeyer RR: Odontoid hypoplasia presenting as torticollis: a discussion of its significance. J Emerg Med. 24(1):15-8, 2003