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Opportunistic Infections
Lubdha M. Shah, MD; Kevin R. Moore, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Definitions

                • Infection in setting of immunocompromised state, chronic illness, systemic infection, corticosteroid therapy, cancer ± chemotherapy

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • Microscopic Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                        Selected References

                                        1. Royer M et al: Mucormycosis in systemic autoimmune diseases. Joint Bone Spine. 81(4):303-7, 2014
                                        2. Tan AC et al: Candida glabrata vertebral osteomyelitis in an immunosuppressed patient. Int J Rheum Dis. 17(2):229-31, 2014
                                        3. Berngard SC et al: Salmonella spinal infection: a rare case in a patient with advanced AIDS. J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care. 12(4):241-4, 2013
                                        4. Patkar D et al: Central nervous system tuberculosis: pathophysiology and imaging findings. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 22(4):677-705, 2012
                                        5. Nfoussi H et al: [Paraparesis and fever in a Tunisian woman: cryptococcal spondylitis with spinal involvement.] Med Trop (Mars). 70(1):85-7, 2010
                                        6. Arshad S et al: Subacute onset of paralysis in a person with AIDS. AIDS Read. 19(1):32-5, 2009
                                        7. Celik AD et al: Spondylodiscitis due to an emergent fungal pathogen: Blastoschizomyces capitatus, a case report and review of the literature. Rheumatol Int. 29(10):1237-41, 2009
                                        8. Herold MA et al: Disseminated toxoplasmosis in a patient with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Infection. 37(6):551-4, 2009
                                        9. Hodkinson B et al: Osteoarticular tuberculosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. QJM. 102(5):321-8, 2009
                                        10. Lou XF et al: Spinal tuberculosis in post-liver transplantation patients: case reports. Transpl Infect Dis. Epub ahead of print, 2009
                                        11. Martinez R et al: Primary aspergilloma and subacute invasive aspergillosis in two AIDS patients. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 51(1):49-52, 2009
                                        12. Palestro CJ et al: Labeled leukocyte imaging: current status and future directions. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 53(1):105-23, 2009
                                        13. Sobottke R et al: Treatment of spondylodiscitis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: a comparison of conservative and operative therapy. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 34(13):E452-8, 2009
                                        14. Sohal A et al: Successful treatment of cytomegalovirus polyradiculopathy in a 9-year-old child with congenital human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Child Neurol. 24(2):215-8, 2009
                                        15. Atalay B et al: Nocardial epidural abscess of the thoracic spinal cord and review of the literature. J Infect Chemother. 11(3):169-71, 2005
                                        16. Weinstein MA et al: Infections of the spine in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 87(3):604-9, 2005
                                        17. Siaens R et al: (123)I-Labeled chitinase as specific radioligand for in vivo detection of fungal infections in mice. J Nucl Med. 45(7):1209-16, 2004
                                        18. Cosan TE et al: Spinal toxoplasmic arachnoiditis associated with osteoid formation: a rare presentation of toxoplasmosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 26(15):1726-8, 2001
                                        19. Frazier DD et al: Fungal infections of the spine. Report of eleven patients with long-term follow-up. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 83-A(4):560-5, 2001
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Terminology

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                              • Pathology

                                                • Clinical Issues

                                                  • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                                    • Definitions

                                                      • Infection in setting of immunocompromised state, chronic illness, systemic infection, corticosteroid therapy, cancer ± chemotherapy

                                                    IMAGING

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • CT Findings

                                                        • MR Findings

                                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                                            • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                                • Microscopic Features

                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                          • Consider

                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. Royer M et al: Mucormycosis in systemic autoimmune diseases. Joint Bone Spine. 81(4):303-7, 2014
                                                                              2. Tan AC et al: Candida glabrata vertebral osteomyelitis in an immunosuppressed patient. Int J Rheum Dis. 17(2):229-31, 2014
                                                                              3. Berngard SC et al: Salmonella spinal infection: a rare case in a patient with advanced AIDS. J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care. 12(4):241-4, 2013
                                                                              4. Patkar D et al: Central nervous system tuberculosis: pathophysiology and imaging findings. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 22(4):677-705, 2012
                                                                              5. Nfoussi H et al: [Paraparesis and fever in a Tunisian woman: cryptococcal spondylitis with spinal involvement.] Med Trop (Mars). 70(1):85-7, 2010
                                                                              6. Arshad S et al: Subacute onset of paralysis in a person with AIDS. AIDS Read. 19(1):32-5, 2009
                                                                              7. Celik AD et al: Spondylodiscitis due to an emergent fungal pathogen: Blastoschizomyces capitatus, a case report and review of the literature. Rheumatol Int. 29(10):1237-41, 2009
                                                                              8. Herold MA et al: Disseminated toxoplasmosis in a patient with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Infection. 37(6):551-4, 2009
                                                                              9. Hodkinson B et al: Osteoarticular tuberculosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. QJM. 102(5):321-8, 2009
                                                                              10. Lou XF et al: Spinal tuberculosis in post-liver transplantation patients: case reports. Transpl Infect Dis. Epub ahead of print, 2009
                                                                              11. Martinez R et al: Primary aspergilloma and subacute invasive aspergillosis in two AIDS patients. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 51(1):49-52, 2009
                                                                              12. Palestro CJ et al: Labeled leukocyte imaging: current status and future directions. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 53(1):105-23, 2009
                                                                              13. Sobottke R et al: Treatment of spondylodiscitis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: a comparison of conservative and operative therapy. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 34(13):E452-8, 2009
                                                                              14. Sohal A et al: Successful treatment of cytomegalovirus polyradiculopathy in a 9-year-old child with congenital human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Child Neurol. 24(2):215-8, 2009
                                                                              15. Atalay B et al: Nocardial epidural abscess of the thoracic spinal cord and review of the literature. J Infect Chemother. 11(3):169-71, 2005
                                                                              16. Weinstein MA et al: Infections of the spine in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 87(3):604-9, 2005
                                                                              17. Siaens R et al: (123)I-Labeled chitinase as specific radioligand for in vivo detection of fungal infections in mice. J Nucl Med. 45(7):1209-16, 2004
                                                                              18. Cosan TE et al: Spinal toxoplasmic arachnoiditis associated with osteoid formation: a rare presentation of toxoplasmosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 26(15):1726-8, 2001
                                                                              19. Frazier DD et al: Fungal infections of the spine. Report of eleven patients with long-term follow-up. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 83-A(4):560-5, 2001