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Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Nicholas A. Koontz, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCCa)
            • Definitions

              • Oral cavity (OC) mucosal malignancy arising from anterior 2/3 of tongue
                • Distinct from base of tongue (oropharyngeal SCCa)

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Consider

                                            • Reporting Tips

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Baba A et al: Usefulness of contrast-enhanced CT in the evaluation of depth of invasion in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma: comparison with MRI. Oral Radiol. 37(1):86-94, 2021
                                              2. Haraguchi K et al: Depth of invasion determined by magnetic resonance imaging in tongue cancer can be a predictor of cervical lymph node metastasis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 131(2):231-40, 2021
                                              3. Hechler B et al: Are oral pain and otalgia predictive of perineural invasion in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue? J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 78(8):1418-26, 2020
                                              4. Kanno M et al: Comparison of diagnostic accuracy between [18F]FDG PET/MRI and contrast-enhanced MRI in T staging for oral tongue cancer. Ann Nucl Med. 34(12):952-9, 2020
                                              5. Kubo Y et al: Diagnostic value of model-based iterative reconstruction combined with a metal artifact reduction algorithm during CT of the oral cavity. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 41(11):2132-8, 2020
                                              6. Mahajan A et al: Imaging in oral cancers: a comprehensive review. Oral Oncol. 104:104658, 2020
                                              7. Noorlag R et al: Assessment of tumour depth in early tongue cancer: accuracy of MRI and intraoral ultrasound. Oral Oncol. 110:104895, 2020
                                              8. Yoon BC et al: Comparison of intraoperative sonography and histopathologic evaluation of tumor thickness and depth of invasion in oral tongue cancer: a pilot study. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 41(7):1245-50, 2020
                                              9. Mourad MAF et al: MRI prognostic factors of tongue cancer: potential predictors of cervical lymph nodes metastases. Radiol Oncol. 53(1):49-56, 2019
                                              10. Murakami R et al: Reliability of MRI-Derived Depth of Invasion of Oral Tongue Cancer. Acad Radiol. 26(7):e180-e186, 2019
                                              11. Amin MB et al: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 8th Ed. Springer New York, 2017
                                              12. Mücke T et al: Tumor thickness and risk of lymph node metastasis in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. Oral Oncol. 53:80-4, 2016
                                              13. Seki M et al: Histologic assessment of tumor budding in preoperative biopsies to predict nodal metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and floor of the mouth. Head Neck. 38 Suppl 1:E1582-90, 2016
                                              14. Tarsitano A et al: Tumor infiltration depth as predictor of nodal metastasis in early tongue squamous cell carcinoma. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 74(3):523-7, 2016
                                              15. Madana J et al: Computerized tomography based tumor-thickness measurement is useful to predict postoperative pathological tumor thickness in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 44:49, 2015
                                              16. Maher NG et al: Elective neck dissection for primary oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma involving the tongue should include sublevel IIb. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 72(11):2333-43, 2014
                                              17. Bagan J et al: Oral cancer: clinical features. Oral Oncol. 46(6):414-7, 2010
                                              18. Shrime MG et al: The impact of adjuvant radiotherapy on survival in T1-2N1 squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010 Mar;136(3):225-8. Erratum in: Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 136(5):512, 2010
                                              19. Viet CT et al: Understanding oral cancer in the genome era. Head Neck. 32(9):1246-68, 2010
                                              20. Zheng M et al: Biomarkers in tongue cancer: understanding the molecular basis and their clinical implications. Postgrad Med J. 86(1015):292-8, 2010
                                              21. Montes DM et al: Oral maxillary squamous cell carcinoma: management of the clinically negative neck. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 66(4):762-6, 2008
                                              22. Shiboski CH et al: Tongue and tonsil carcinoma: increasing trends in the U.S. population ages 20-44 years. Cancer. 103(9):1843-9, 2005
                                              23. Popovtzer A et al: Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue in young patients. Laryngoscope. 114(5):915-7, 2004
                                              24. Aiken AH et al: Alveolar soft-part sarcoma of the tongue. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 24(6):1156-8, 2003
                                              25. Davidson BJ et al: Age and survival from squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue. Head Neck. 23(4):273-9, 2001
                                              26. El-Husseiny G et al: Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue: an analysis of prognostic factors. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 38(3):193-9, 2000
                                              27. Beenken SW et al: T1 and T2 squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue: prognostic factors and the role of elective lymph node dissection. Head Neck. 21(2):124-30, 1999
                                              28. Fujita M et al: Interstitial brachytherapy for stage I and II squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue: factors influencing local control and soft tissue complications. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 44(4):767-75, 1999
                                              29. Mineta H et al: Low p27 expression correlates with poor prognosis for patients with oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer. 85(5):1011-7, 1999
                                              30. Xie X et al: The prognostic value of spontaneous apoptosis, Bax, Bcl-2, and p53 in oral squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. Cancer. 86(6):913-20, 1999
                                              Related Anatomy
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                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                    • Pathology

                                                      • Clinical Issues

                                                        TERMINOLOGY

                                                        • Abbreviations

                                                          • Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCCa)
                                                        • Definitions

                                                          • Oral cavity (OC) mucosal malignancy arising from anterior 2/3 of tongue
                                                            • Distinct from base of tongue (oropharyngeal SCCa)

                                                        IMAGING

                                                        • General Features

                                                          • CT Findings

                                                            • MR Findings

                                                              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                                      • General Features

                                                                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                              • Presentation

                                                                                • Demographics

                                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                      • Consider

                                                                                        • Reporting Tips

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Baba A et al: Usefulness of contrast-enhanced CT in the evaluation of depth of invasion in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma: comparison with MRI. Oral Radiol. 37(1):86-94, 2021
                                                                                          2. Haraguchi K et al: Depth of invasion determined by magnetic resonance imaging in tongue cancer can be a predictor of cervical lymph node metastasis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 131(2):231-40, 2021
                                                                                          3. Hechler B et al: Are oral pain and otalgia predictive of perineural invasion in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue? J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 78(8):1418-26, 2020
                                                                                          4. Kanno M et al: Comparison of diagnostic accuracy between [18F]FDG PET/MRI and contrast-enhanced MRI in T staging for oral tongue cancer. Ann Nucl Med. 34(12):952-9, 2020
                                                                                          5. Kubo Y et al: Diagnostic value of model-based iterative reconstruction combined with a metal artifact reduction algorithm during CT of the oral cavity. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 41(11):2132-8, 2020
                                                                                          6. Mahajan A et al: Imaging in oral cancers: a comprehensive review. Oral Oncol. 104:104658, 2020
                                                                                          7. Noorlag R et al: Assessment of tumour depth in early tongue cancer: accuracy of MRI and intraoral ultrasound. Oral Oncol. 110:104895, 2020
                                                                                          8. Yoon BC et al: Comparison of intraoperative sonography and histopathologic evaluation of tumor thickness and depth of invasion in oral tongue cancer: a pilot study. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 41(7):1245-50, 2020
                                                                                          9. Mourad MAF et al: MRI prognostic factors of tongue cancer: potential predictors of cervical lymph nodes metastases. Radiol Oncol. 53(1):49-56, 2019
                                                                                          10. Murakami R et al: Reliability of MRI-Derived Depth of Invasion of Oral Tongue Cancer. Acad Radiol. 26(7):e180-e186, 2019
                                                                                          11. Amin MB et al: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 8th Ed. Springer New York, 2017
                                                                                          12. Mücke T et al: Tumor thickness and risk of lymph node metastasis in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. Oral Oncol. 53:80-4, 2016
                                                                                          13. Seki M et al: Histologic assessment of tumor budding in preoperative biopsies to predict nodal metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and floor of the mouth. Head Neck. 38 Suppl 1:E1582-90, 2016
                                                                                          14. Tarsitano A et al: Tumor infiltration depth as predictor of nodal metastasis in early tongue squamous cell carcinoma. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 74(3):523-7, 2016
                                                                                          15. Madana J et al: Computerized tomography based tumor-thickness measurement is useful to predict postoperative pathological tumor thickness in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 44:49, 2015
                                                                                          16. Maher NG et al: Elective neck dissection for primary oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma involving the tongue should include sublevel IIb. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 72(11):2333-43, 2014
                                                                                          17. Bagan J et al: Oral cancer: clinical features. Oral Oncol. 46(6):414-7, 2010
                                                                                          18. Shrime MG et al: The impact of adjuvant radiotherapy on survival in T1-2N1 squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010 Mar;136(3):225-8. Erratum in: Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 136(5):512, 2010
                                                                                          19. Viet CT et al: Understanding oral cancer in the genome era. Head Neck. 32(9):1246-68, 2010
                                                                                          20. Zheng M et al: Biomarkers in tongue cancer: understanding the molecular basis and their clinical implications. Postgrad Med J. 86(1015):292-8, 2010
                                                                                          21. Montes DM et al: Oral maxillary squamous cell carcinoma: management of the clinically negative neck. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 66(4):762-6, 2008
                                                                                          22. Shiboski CH et al: Tongue and tonsil carcinoma: increasing trends in the U.S. population ages 20-44 years. Cancer. 103(9):1843-9, 2005
                                                                                          23. Popovtzer A et al: Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue in young patients. Laryngoscope. 114(5):915-7, 2004
                                                                                          24. Aiken AH et al: Alveolar soft-part sarcoma of the tongue. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 24(6):1156-8, 2003
                                                                                          25. Davidson BJ et al: Age and survival from squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue. Head Neck. 23(4):273-9, 2001
                                                                                          26. El-Husseiny G et al: Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue: an analysis of prognostic factors. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 38(3):193-9, 2000
                                                                                          27. Beenken SW et al: T1 and T2 squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue: prognostic factors and the role of elective lymph node dissection. Head Neck. 21(2):124-30, 1999
                                                                                          28. Fujita M et al: Interstitial brachytherapy for stage I and II squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue: factors influencing local control and soft tissue complications. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 44(4):767-75, 1999
                                                                                          29. Mineta H et al: Low p27 expression correlates with poor prognosis for patients with oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer. 85(5):1011-7, 1999
                                                                                          30. Xie X et al: The prognostic value of spontaneous apoptosis, Bax, Bcl-2, and p53 in oral squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. Cancer. 86(6):913-20, 1999