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Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Nicholas A. Koontz, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCCa)
            • Definitions

              • Oral cavity (OC) mucosal malignancy arising from anterior 2/3 of tongue
                • Distinct from base of tongue (oropharyngeal SCCa)

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              • Microscopic Features

                                CLINICAL ISSUES

                                • Presentation

                                  • Demographics

                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                      • Treatment

                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                        • Consider

                                          • Reporting Tips

                                            Selected References

                                            1. Mücke T et al: Tumor thickness and risk of lymph node metastasis in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. Oral Oncol. 53:80-4, 2016
                                            2. Seki M et al: Histologic assessment of tumor budding in preoperative biopsies to predict nodal metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and floor of the mouth. Head Neck. 38 Suppl 1:E1582-90, 2016
                                            3. Tarsitano A et al: Tumor infiltration depth as predictor of nodal metastasis in early tongue squamous cell carcinoma. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 74(3):523-7, 2016
                                            4. Abu-Serriah M et al: Can depth of invasion of pT1 carcinoma of the oral tongue predict occult metastases in the neck? A retrospective study. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. ePub, 2015
                                            5. Madana J et al: Computerized tomography based tumor-thickness measurement is useful to predict postoperative pathological tumor thickness in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 44:49, 2015
                                            6. Maher NG et al: Elective neck dissection for primary oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma involving the tongue should include sublevel IIb. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 72(11):2333-43, 2014
                                            7. Bagan J et al: Oral cancer: clinical features. Oral Oncol. 46(6):414-7, 2010
                                            8. Shrime MG et al: The impact of adjuvant radiotherapy on survival in T1-2N1 squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010 Mar;136(3):225-8. Erratum in: Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 136(5):512, 2010
                                            9. Viet CT et al: Understanding oral cancer in the genome era. Head Neck. 32(9):1246-68, 2010
                                            10. Zheng M et al: Biomarkers in tongue cancer: understanding the molecular basis and their clinical implications. Postgrad Med J. 86(1015):292-8, 2010
                                            11. Montes DM et al: Oral maxillary squamous cell carcinoma: management of the clinically negative neck. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 66(4):762-6, 2008
                                            12. Shiboski CH et al: Tongue and tonsil carcinoma: increasing trends in the U.S. population ages 20-44 years. Cancer. 103(9):1843-9, 2005
                                            13. Popovtzer A et al: Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue in young patients. Laryngoscope. 114(5):915-7, 2004
                                            14. Aiken AH et al: Alveolar soft-part sarcoma of the tongue. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 24(6):1156-8, 2003
                                            15. Davidson BJ et al: Age and survival from squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue. Head Neck. 23(4):273-9, 2001
                                            16. El-Husseiny G et al: Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue: an analysis of prognostic factors. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 38(3):193-9, 2000
                                            17. Beenken SW et al: T1 and T2 squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue: prognostic factors and the role of elective lymph node dissection. Head Neck. 21(2):124-30, 1999
                                            18. Fujita M et al: Interstitial brachytherapy for stage I and II squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue: factors influencing local control and soft tissue complications. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 44(4):767-75, 1999
                                            19. Mineta H et al: Low p27 expression correlates with poor prognosis for patients with oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer. 85(5):1011-7, 1999
                                            20. Xie X et al: The prognostic value of spontaneous apoptosis, Bax, Bcl-2, and p53 in oral squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. Cancer. 86(6):913-20, 1999
                                            Related Anatomy
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                                            Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                            References
                                            Tables

                                            Tables

                                            KEY FACTS

                                            • Terminology

                                              • Imaging

                                                • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                  • Pathology

                                                    • Clinical Issues

                                                      TERMINOLOGY

                                                      • Abbreviations

                                                        • Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCCa)
                                                      • Definitions

                                                        • Oral cavity (OC) mucosal malignancy arising from anterior 2/3 of tongue
                                                          • Distinct from base of tongue (oropharyngeal SCCa)

                                                      IMAGING

                                                      • General Features

                                                        • CT Findings

                                                          • MR Findings

                                                            • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                                  • General Features

                                                                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                        • Microscopic Features

                                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                          • Presentation

                                                                            • Demographics

                                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                • Treatment

                                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                  • Consider

                                                                                    • Reporting Tips

                                                                                      Selected References

                                                                                      1. Mücke T et al: Tumor thickness and risk of lymph node metastasis in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. Oral Oncol. 53:80-4, 2016
                                                                                      2. Seki M et al: Histologic assessment of tumor budding in preoperative biopsies to predict nodal metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and floor of the mouth. Head Neck. 38 Suppl 1:E1582-90, 2016
                                                                                      3. Tarsitano A et al: Tumor infiltration depth as predictor of nodal metastasis in early tongue squamous cell carcinoma. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 74(3):523-7, 2016
                                                                                      4. Abu-Serriah M et al: Can depth of invasion of pT1 carcinoma of the oral tongue predict occult metastases in the neck? A retrospective study. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. ePub, 2015
                                                                                      5. Madana J et al: Computerized tomography based tumor-thickness measurement is useful to predict postoperative pathological tumor thickness in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 44:49, 2015
                                                                                      6. Maher NG et al: Elective neck dissection for primary oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma involving the tongue should include sublevel IIb. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 72(11):2333-43, 2014
                                                                                      7. Bagan J et al: Oral cancer: clinical features. Oral Oncol. 46(6):414-7, 2010
                                                                                      8. Shrime MG et al: The impact of adjuvant radiotherapy on survival in T1-2N1 squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010 Mar;136(3):225-8. Erratum in: Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 136(5):512, 2010
                                                                                      9. Viet CT et al: Understanding oral cancer in the genome era. Head Neck. 32(9):1246-68, 2010
                                                                                      10. Zheng M et al: Biomarkers in tongue cancer: understanding the molecular basis and their clinical implications. Postgrad Med J. 86(1015):292-8, 2010
                                                                                      11. Montes DM et al: Oral maxillary squamous cell carcinoma: management of the clinically negative neck. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 66(4):762-6, 2008
                                                                                      12. Shiboski CH et al: Tongue and tonsil carcinoma: increasing trends in the U.S. population ages 20-44 years. Cancer. 103(9):1843-9, 2005
                                                                                      13. Popovtzer A et al: Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue in young patients. Laryngoscope. 114(5):915-7, 2004
                                                                                      14. Aiken AH et al: Alveolar soft-part sarcoma of the tongue. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 24(6):1156-8, 2003
                                                                                      15. Davidson BJ et al: Age and survival from squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue. Head Neck. 23(4):273-9, 2001
                                                                                      16. El-Husseiny G et al: Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue: an analysis of prognostic factors. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 38(3):193-9, 2000
                                                                                      17. Beenken SW et al: T1 and T2 squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue: prognostic factors and the role of elective lymph node dissection. Head Neck. 21(2):124-30, 1999
                                                                                      18. Fujita M et al: Interstitial brachytherapy for stage I and II squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue: factors influencing local control and soft tissue complications. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 44(4):767-75, 1999
                                                                                      19. Mineta H et al: Low p27 expression correlates with poor prognosis for patients with oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer. 85(5):1011-7, 1999
                                                                                      20. Xie X et al: The prognostic value of spontaneous apoptosis, Bax, Bcl-2, and p53 in oral squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. Cancer. 86(6):913-20, 1999