link
Bookmarks
Orbital Lymphatic Malformation
H. Christian Davidson, MD
To access 4,300 diagnoses written by the world's leading experts in radiology, please log in or subscribe.Log inSubscribe
0
7
0
9

KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • Lymphatic malformation (LM)
              • Synonyms

                • Venolymphatic malformation (VLM) when combined with venous component
                • Old terms:Lymphangioma, cystic hygroma
              • Definitions

                • Congenital vascular malformation with lymphatic ± venous vascular elements
                • Falls within spectrum of orbit lymphatic-venous-arterial vascular malformations

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                • Microscopic Features

                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                  • Presentation

                                    • Demographics

                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                        • Treatment

                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                          • Consider

                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                              Selected References

                                              1. Chadha V et al: Orbital venous-lymphatic malformation. Eye (Lond). 23(12):2265-6, 2009
                                              2. Gündüz K et al: Well-circumscribed orbital venous-lymphatic malformations with atypical features in children. Br J Ophthalmol. 93(5):656-9, 2009
                                              3. Mavrikakis I et al: The role of thrombosis as a mechanism of exacerbation in venous and combined venous lymphatic vascular malformations of the orbit. Ophthalmology. 116(6):1216-24, 2009
                                              4. Poon CS et al: Orbital lesions: differentiating vascular and nonvascular etiologic factors. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 190(4):956-65, 2008
                                              5. Smoker WR et al: Vascular lesions of the orbit: more than meets the eye. Radiographics. 28(1):185-204; quiz 325, 2008
                                              6. Warrier S et al: Orbital arteriovenous malformations. Arch Ophthalmol. 126(12):1669-75, 2008
                                              7. Bisdorff A et al: Intracranial vascular anomalies in patients with periorbital lymphatic and lymphaticovenous malformations. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 28(2):335-41, 2007
                                              8. Liu H et al: Bilateral orbital lymphangiomas in two patients with generalized lymphangiomatosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 28(3):491-2, 2007
                                              9. Burrows PE et al: Percutaneous treatment of low flow vascular malformations. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 15(5):431-45, 2004
                                              10. Ernemann U et al: Navigation-assisted sclerotherapy of orbital venolymphatic malformation: a new guidance technique for percutaneous treatment of low-flow vascular malformations. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 25(10):1792-5, 2004
                                              11. Lewin JS: Low-flow vascular malformations of the orbit: a new approach to a therapeutic dilemma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 25(10):1633-4, 2004
                                              12. Vachharajani A et al: Orbital lymphangioma with non-contiguous cerebral arteriovenous malformation, manifesting with thrombocytopenia (Kasabach-Merritt syndrome) and intracerebral hemorrhage. Acta Paediatr. 91(1):98-9, 2002
                                              13. Cursiefen C et al: Orbital lymphangioma with positive immunohistochemistry of lymphatic endothelial markers (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 and podoplanin). Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 239(8):628-32, 2001
                                              14. Parentin F et al: The role of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of orbital lymphangiomas. Ophthalmologica. 215(3):238-40, 2001
                                              15. Selva D et al: Orbital venous-lymphatic malformations (lymphangiomas) mimicking cavernous hemangiomas. Am J Ophthalmol. 131(3):364-70, 2001
                                              16. Sires BS et al: Systemic corticosteroid use in orbital lymphangioma. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 17(2):85-90, 2001
                                              17. Suzuki Y et al: Management of orbital lymphangioma using intralesional injection of OK-432. Br J Ophthalmol. 84(6):614-7, 2000
                                              18. Tunc M et al: Orbital lymphangioma: an analysis of 26 patients. Br J Ophthalmol. 83(1):76-80, 1999
                                              19. Katz SE et al: Combined venous lymphatic malformations of the orbit (so-called lymphangiomas). Ophthalmology. 105(1):176-84, 1998
                                              20. Koeller KK et al: Orbital masses. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 19(3):272-91, 1998
                                              21. Bond JB et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of orbital lymphangioma with and without gadolinium contrast enhancement. Ophthalmology. 99(8):1318-24, 1992
                                              22. Hopper KD et al: CT and MR imaging of the pediatric orbit. Radiographics. 12(3):485-503, 1992
                                              23. Kazim M et al: Orbital lymphangioma. Correlation of magnetic resonance images and intraoperative findings. Ophthalmology. 99(10):1588-94, 1992
                                              24. Graeb DA et al: Orbital lymphangiomas: clinical, radiologic, and pathologic characteristics. Radiology. 175(2):417-21, 1990
                                              25. Harris GJ et al: An analysis of thirty cases of orbital lymphangioma. Pathophysiologic considerations and management recommendations. Ophthalmology. 97(12):1583-92, 1990
                                              Related Anatomy
                                              Loading...
                                              Related Differential Diagnoses
                                              Loading...
                                              References
                                              Tables

                                              Tables

                                              KEY FACTS

                                              • Terminology

                                                • Imaging

                                                  • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                    • Pathology

                                                      • Clinical Issues

                                                        • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                                          • Abbreviations

                                                            • Lymphatic malformation (LM)
                                                          • Synonyms

                                                            • Venolymphatic malformation (VLM) when combined with venous component
                                                            • Old terms:Lymphangioma, cystic hygroma
                                                          • Definitions

                                                            • Congenital vascular malformation with lymphatic ± venous vascular elements
                                                            • Falls within spectrum of orbit lymphatic-venous-arterial vascular malformations

                                                          IMAGING

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • CT Findings

                                                              • MR Findings

                                                                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                  • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                      PATHOLOGY

                                                                      • General Features

                                                                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                            • Microscopic Features

                                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                              • Presentation

                                                                                • Demographics

                                                                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                    • Treatment

                                                                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                      • Consider

                                                                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                          Selected References

                                                                                          1. Chadha V et al: Orbital venous-lymphatic malformation. Eye (Lond). 23(12):2265-6, 2009
                                                                                          2. Gündüz K et al: Well-circumscribed orbital venous-lymphatic malformations with atypical features in children. Br J Ophthalmol. 93(5):656-9, 2009
                                                                                          3. Mavrikakis I et al: The role of thrombosis as a mechanism of exacerbation in venous and combined venous lymphatic vascular malformations of the orbit. Ophthalmology. 116(6):1216-24, 2009
                                                                                          4. Poon CS et al: Orbital lesions: differentiating vascular and nonvascular etiologic factors. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 190(4):956-65, 2008
                                                                                          5. Smoker WR et al: Vascular lesions of the orbit: more than meets the eye. Radiographics. 28(1):185-204; quiz 325, 2008
                                                                                          6. Warrier S et al: Orbital arteriovenous malformations. Arch Ophthalmol. 126(12):1669-75, 2008
                                                                                          7. Bisdorff A et al: Intracranial vascular anomalies in patients with periorbital lymphatic and lymphaticovenous malformations. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 28(2):335-41, 2007
                                                                                          8. Liu H et al: Bilateral orbital lymphangiomas in two patients with generalized lymphangiomatosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 28(3):491-2, 2007
                                                                                          9. Burrows PE et al: Percutaneous treatment of low flow vascular malformations. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 15(5):431-45, 2004
                                                                                          10. Ernemann U et al: Navigation-assisted sclerotherapy of orbital venolymphatic malformation: a new guidance technique for percutaneous treatment of low-flow vascular malformations. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 25(10):1792-5, 2004
                                                                                          11. Lewin JS: Low-flow vascular malformations of the orbit: a new approach to a therapeutic dilemma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 25(10):1633-4, 2004
                                                                                          12. Vachharajani A et al: Orbital lymphangioma with non-contiguous cerebral arteriovenous malformation, manifesting with thrombocytopenia (Kasabach-Merritt syndrome) and intracerebral hemorrhage. Acta Paediatr. 91(1):98-9, 2002
                                                                                          13. Cursiefen C et al: Orbital lymphangioma with positive immunohistochemistry of lymphatic endothelial markers (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 and podoplanin). Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 239(8):628-32, 2001
                                                                                          14. Parentin F et al: The role of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of orbital lymphangiomas. Ophthalmologica. 215(3):238-40, 2001
                                                                                          15. Selva D et al: Orbital venous-lymphatic malformations (lymphangiomas) mimicking cavernous hemangiomas. Am J Ophthalmol. 131(3):364-70, 2001
                                                                                          16. Sires BS et al: Systemic corticosteroid use in orbital lymphangioma. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 17(2):85-90, 2001
                                                                                          17. Suzuki Y et al: Management of orbital lymphangioma using intralesional injection of OK-432. Br J Ophthalmol. 84(6):614-7, 2000
                                                                                          18. Tunc M et al: Orbital lymphangioma: an analysis of 26 patients. Br J Ophthalmol. 83(1):76-80, 1999
                                                                                          19. Katz SE et al: Combined venous lymphatic malformations of the orbit (so-called lymphangiomas). Ophthalmology. 105(1):176-84, 1998
                                                                                          20. Koeller KK et al: Orbital masses. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 19(3):272-91, 1998
                                                                                          21. Bond JB et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of orbital lymphangioma with and without gadolinium contrast enhancement. Ophthalmology. 99(8):1318-24, 1992
                                                                                          22. Hopper KD et al: CT and MR imaging of the pediatric orbit. Radiographics. 12(3):485-503, 1992
                                                                                          23. Kazim M et al: Orbital lymphangioma. Correlation of magnetic resonance images and intraoperative findings. Ophthalmology. 99(10):1588-94, 1992
                                                                                          24. Graeb DA et al: Orbital lymphangiomas: clinical, radiologic, and pathologic characteristics. Radiology. 175(2):417-21, 1990
                                                                                          25. Harris GJ et al: An analysis of thirty cases of orbital lymphangioma. Pathophysiologic considerations and management recommendations. Ophthalmology. 97(12):1583-92, 1990