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Orofacial Clefts
Brad J. Potter, DDS, MS; Margot L. Van Dis, DDS, MS
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Definitions

              • Developmental disturbance resulting in failure of proper fusion of various orofacial tissues
                • Common clefts
                  • Cleft lip (CL): Defective fusion of median nasal process with maxillary process
                  • Cleft palate (CP): Fusion failure of primary palatal shelves
                • Uncommon clefts
                  • Lateral facial cleft: Lack of fusion of maxillary and mandibular processes
                    • Extends from commissure toward ear
                  • Oblique facial cleft: Failure of fusion of lateral nasal process with maxillary process
                    • Extends from upper lip to eye
                  • Median cleft of upper lip: Failure of fusion of medial nasal processes
                  • Median maxillary anterior alveolar cleft: Failure of fusion of secondary palatal shelves

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Imaging Recommendations

                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                  PATHOLOGY

                  • General Features

                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                    • Presentation

                      • Demographics

                        • Treatment

                          Selected References

                          1. Phan M et al: Tooth agenesis and orofacial clefting: genetic brothers in arms? Hum Genet. 135(12):1299-1327, 2016
                          2. Saal HM: Genetic Evaluation for Craniofacial Conditions. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 24(4):405-425, 2016
                          3. Trindade-Suedam IK et al: Diabetes mellitus and drug abuse during pregnancy and the risk for orofacial clefts and related abnormalities. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem. 24:e2701, 2016
                          4. IPDTOC Working Group.: Prevalence at birth of cleft lip with or without cleft palate: data from the International Perinatal Database of Typical Oral Clefts (IPDTOC). Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 48(1):66-81, 2011
                          5. Kantaputra PN et al: Cleft lip with cleft palate, ankyloglossia, and hypodontia are associated with TBX22 mutations. J Dent Res. 90(4):450-5, 2011
                          6. Russell K et al: The americleft study: an inter-center study of treatment outcomes for patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate part 5. General discussion and conclusions. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 48(3):265-70, 2011
                          7. Prathanee B et al: Community-based network system and interdisciplinary management for children with cleft-lip/palate. J Med Assoc Thai. 93 Suppl 4:S63-70, 2010
                          Related Anatomy
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                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                          References
                          Tables

                          Tables

                          KEY FACTS

                          • Terminology

                            • Imaging

                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                • Pathology

                                  • Clinical Issues

                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                    • Definitions

                                      • Developmental disturbance resulting in failure of proper fusion of various orofacial tissues
                                        • Common clefts
                                          • Cleft lip (CL): Defective fusion of median nasal process with maxillary process
                                          • Cleft palate (CP): Fusion failure of primary palatal shelves
                                        • Uncommon clefts
                                          • Lateral facial cleft: Lack of fusion of maxillary and mandibular processes
                                            • Extends from commissure toward ear
                                          • Oblique facial cleft: Failure of fusion of lateral nasal process with maxillary process
                                            • Extends from upper lip to eye
                                          • Median cleft of upper lip: Failure of fusion of medial nasal processes
                                          • Median maxillary anterior alveolar cleft: Failure of fusion of secondary palatal shelves

                                    IMAGING

                                    • General Features

                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                          PATHOLOGY

                                          • General Features

                                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                                            • Presentation

                                              • Demographics

                                                • Treatment

                                                  Selected References

                                                  1. Phan M et al: Tooth agenesis and orofacial clefting: genetic brothers in arms? Hum Genet. 135(12):1299-1327, 2016
                                                  2. Saal HM: Genetic Evaluation for Craniofacial Conditions. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 24(4):405-425, 2016
                                                  3. Trindade-Suedam IK et al: Diabetes mellitus and drug abuse during pregnancy and the risk for orofacial clefts and related abnormalities. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem. 24:e2701, 2016
                                                  4. IPDTOC Working Group.: Prevalence at birth of cleft lip with or without cleft palate: data from the International Perinatal Database of Typical Oral Clefts (IPDTOC). Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 48(1):66-81, 2011
                                                  5. Kantaputra PN et al: Cleft lip with cleft palate, ankyloglossia, and hypodontia are associated with TBX22 mutations. J Dent Res. 90(4):450-5, 2011
                                                  6. Russell K et al: The americleft study: an inter-center study of treatment outcomes for patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate part 5. General discussion and conclusions. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 48(3):265-70, 2011
                                                  7. Prathanee B et al: Community-based network system and interdisciplinary management for children with cleft-lip/palate. J Med Assoc Thai. 93 Suppl 4:S63-70, 2010