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Ossiculum Terminale
Kevin R. Moore, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Synonyms

                • Ossiculum terminale persistens
              • Definitions

                • Persistence of unfused odontoid tip ossification center into adulthood

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      Selected References

                                      1. Hedequist DJ et al: Os odontoideum in children. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 28(3):e100-7, 2020
                                      2. Hedequist DJ et al: Os odontoideum in children. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. ePub, 2019
                                      3. O'Brien WT Sr et al: The dens: normal development, developmental variants and anomalies, and traumatic injuries. J Clin Imaging Sci. 5:38, 2015
                                      4. Perdikakis E et al: The odontoid process: various configuration types in MR examinations. Eur Spine J. 23(5):1077-83, 2014
                                      5. Pang D et al: Embryology and bony malformations of the craniovertebral junction. Childs Nerv Syst. 27(4):523-64, 2011
                                      6. Viswanathan A et al: "Orthotopic" ossiculum terminale persistens and atlantoaxial instability in a child less than 12 years of age: a case report and review of the literature. Cases J. 2:8530, 2009
                                      7. Smoker WR et al: Imaging the craniocervical junction. Childs Nerv Syst. 24(10):1123-45, 2008
                                      8. Klimo P Jr et al: Congenital anomalies of the cervical spine. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 18(3):463-78, 2007
                                      9. Constantoyannis C et al: Atlantoaxial instability and myelopathy due to an ossiculum terminale persistens. Med Sci Monit. 10(10):CS63-7, 2004
                                      10. Liang CL et al: Atlantoaxial stability in ossiculum terminale. Case report. J Neurosurg. 95(1 Suppl):119-21, 2001
                                      Related Anatomy
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                                      Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                      References
                                      Tables

                                      Tables

                                      KEY FACTS

                                      • Terminology

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                            • Pathology

                                              • Clinical Issues

                                                • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                  TERMINOLOGY

                                                  • Synonyms

                                                    • Ossiculum terminale persistens
                                                  • Definitions

                                                    • Persistence of unfused odontoid tip ossification center into adulthood

                                                  IMAGING

                                                  • General Features

                                                    • Radiographic Findings

                                                      • CT Findings

                                                        • MR Findings

                                                          • Imaging Recommendations

                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                              • General Features

                                                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                    • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                      • Treatment

                                                                        DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                        • Consider

                                                                          Selected References

                                                                          1. Hedequist DJ et al: Os odontoideum in children. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 28(3):e100-7, 2020
                                                                          2. Hedequist DJ et al: Os odontoideum in children. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. ePub, 2019
                                                                          3. O'Brien WT Sr et al: The dens: normal development, developmental variants and anomalies, and traumatic injuries. J Clin Imaging Sci. 5:38, 2015
                                                                          4. Perdikakis E et al: The odontoid process: various configuration types in MR examinations. Eur Spine J. 23(5):1077-83, 2014
                                                                          5. Pang D et al: Embryology and bony malformations of the craniovertebral junction. Childs Nerv Syst. 27(4):523-64, 2011
                                                                          6. Viswanathan A et al: "Orthotopic" ossiculum terminale persistens and atlantoaxial instability in a child less than 12 years of age: a case report and review of the literature. Cases J. 2:8530, 2009
                                                                          7. Smoker WR et al: Imaging the craniocervical junction. Childs Nerv Syst. 24(10):1123-45, 2008
                                                                          8. Klimo P Jr et al: Congenital anomalies of the cervical spine. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 18(3):463-78, 2007
                                                                          9. Constantoyannis C et al: Atlantoaxial instability and myelopathy due to an ossiculum terminale persistens. Med Sci Monit. 10(10):CS63-7, 2004
                                                                          10. Liang CL et al: Atlantoaxial stability in ossiculum terminale. Case report. J Neurosurg. 95(1 Suppl):119-21, 2001