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Osteochondroma
A. Carlson Merrow, Jr., MD, FAAP
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Osteochondroma (OC)
            • Synonyms

              • Exostosis
            • Definitions

              • Benign, developmental bony surface lesion arising from displaced growth cartilage
                • Not true neoplasm
              • Maintains corticomedullary continuity with underlying bone
              • Covered by hyaline cartilage cap

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • Radiographic Findings

                • CT Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                        • Angiographic Findings

                          • Imaging Recommendations

                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                              PATHOLOGY

                              • General Features

                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                  • Microscopic Features

                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                    • Presentation

                                      • Demographics

                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                          • Treatment

                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                              • Reporting Tips

                                                Selected References

                                                1. Wodajo FM: Top five lesions that do not need referral to orthopedic oncology. Orthop Clin North Am. 46(2):303-314, 2015
                                                2. Sonne-Holm E et al: Multiple cartilaginous exostoses and development of chondrosarcomas--a systematic review. Dan Med J. 61(9):A4895, 2014
                                                3. Rangdal SS et al: Pseudoaneurysm of the popliteal artery in a child with multiple hereditary exostosis: a rare case report and literature review. J Pediatr Orthop B. 22(4):353-6, 2013
                                                4. Satija B et al: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica of talus mimicking posterior ankle impingement syndrome in a young male: a case report with review of the literature. J Foot Ankle Surg. 52(4):518-22, 2013
                                                5. Douis H et al: The imaging of cartilaginous bone tumours. I. Benign lesions. Skeletal Radiol. 41(10):1195-212, 2012
                                                6. Passanise AM et al: Radiographic evidence of regression of a solitary osteochondroma: a report of 4 cases and a literature review. J Pediatr Orthop. 31(3):312-6, 2011
                                                7. Bernard SA et al: Improved differentiation of benign osteochondromas from secondary chondrosarcomas with standardized measurement of cartilage cap at CT and MR imaging. Radiology. 255(3):857-65, 2010
                                                8. Lotfinia I et al: Neurological manifestations, imaging characteristics, and surgical outcome of intraspinal osteochondroma. J Neurosurg Spine. 12(5):474-89, 2010
                                                9. Marcovici PA et al: Osteochondromas and growth retardation secondary to externally or internally administered radiation in childhood. Pediatr Radiol. 37(3):301-4, 2007
                                                10. Jin W et al: Costal osteochondroma presenting as haemothorax and diaphragmatic laceration. Pediatr Radiol. 35(7):706-9, 2005
                                                11. Geirnaerdt MJ et al: Cartilaginous tumors: fast contrast-enhanced MR imaging. Radiology. 214(2):539-46, 2000
                                                12. Murphey MD et al: Imaging of osteochondroma: variants and complications with radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 20(5):1407-34, 2000
                                                13. Robbin MR et al: Benign chondroid neoplasms of bone. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 4(1):45-58, 2000
                                                14. Brien EW et al: Benign and malignant cartilage tumors of bone and joint: their anatomic and theoretical basis with an emphasis on radiology, pathology and clinical biology. II. Juxtacortical cartilage tumors. Skeletal Radiol. 28(1):1-20, 1999
                                                Related Anatomy
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                                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                                References
                                                Tables

                                                Tables

                                                KEY FACTS

                                                • Terminology

                                                  • Imaging

                                                    • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                      • Pathology

                                                        • Clinical Issues

                                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                                          • Abbreviations

                                                            • Osteochondroma (OC)
                                                          • Synonyms

                                                            • Exostosis
                                                          • Definitions

                                                            • Benign, developmental bony surface lesion arising from displaced growth cartilage
                                                              • Not true neoplasm
                                                            • Maintains corticomedullary continuity with underlying bone
                                                            • Covered by hyaline cartilage cap

                                                          IMAGING

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Radiographic Findings

                                                              • CT Findings

                                                                • MR Findings

                                                                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                      • Angiographic Findings

                                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                                            • General Features

                                                                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                                • Microscopic Features

                                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                          • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                            • Reporting Tips

                                                                                              Selected References

                                                                                              1. Wodajo FM: Top five lesions that do not need referral to orthopedic oncology. Orthop Clin North Am. 46(2):303-314, 2015
                                                                                              2. Sonne-Holm E et al: Multiple cartilaginous exostoses and development of chondrosarcomas--a systematic review. Dan Med J. 61(9):A4895, 2014
                                                                                              3. Rangdal SS et al: Pseudoaneurysm of the popliteal artery in a child with multiple hereditary exostosis: a rare case report and literature review. J Pediatr Orthop B. 22(4):353-6, 2013
                                                                                              4. Satija B et al: Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica of talus mimicking posterior ankle impingement syndrome in a young male: a case report with review of the literature. J Foot Ankle Surg. 52(4):518-22, 2013
                                                                                              5. Douis H et al: The imaging of cartilaginous bone tumours. I. Benign lesions. Skeletal Radiol. 41(10):1195-212, 2012
                                                                                              6. Passanise AM et al: Radiographic evidence of regression of a solitary osteochondroma: a report of 4 cases and a literature review. J Pediatr Orthop. 31(3):312-6, 2011
                                                                                              7. Bernard SA et al: Improved differentiation of benign osteochondromas from secondary chondrosarcomas with standardized measurement of cartilage cap at CT and MR imaging. Radiology. 255(3):857-65, 2010
                                                                                              8. Lotfinia I et al: Neurological manifestations, imaging characteristics, and surgical outcome of intraspinal osteochondroma. J Neurosurg Spine. 12(5):474-89, 2010
                                                                                              9. Marcovici PA et al: Osteochondromas and growth retardation secondary to externally or internally administered radiation in childhood. Pediatr Radiol. 37(3):301-4, 2007
                                                                                              10. Jin W et al: Costal osteochondroma presenting as haemothorax and diaphragmatic laceration. Pediatr Radiol. 35(7):706-9, 2005
                                                                                              11. Geirnaerdt MJ et al: Cartilaginous tumors: fast contrast-enhanced MR imaging. Radiology. 214(2):539-46, 2000
                                                                                              12. Murphey MD et al: Imaging of osteochondroma: variants and complications with radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 20(5):1407-34, 2000
                                                                                              13. Robbin MR et al: Benign chondroid neoplasms of bone. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 4(1):45-58, 2000
                                                                                              14. Brien EW et al: Benign and malignant cartilage tumors of bone and joint: their anatomic and theoretical basis with an emphasis on radiology, pathology and clinical biology. II. Juxtacortical cartilage tumors. Skeletal Radiol. 28(1):1-20, 1999