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Osteochondroma
Jeffrey S. Ross, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Abbreviations

                • Osteochondroma (OC)
                • Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME)
              • Synonyms

                • Osteocartilaginous exostosis, exostosis
                • HME, a.k.a. diaphyseal aclasis, multiple cartilaginous exostoses
              • Definitions

                • Cartilage-capped osseous excrescence contiguous with parent bone

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Radiographic Findings

                  • CT Findings

                    • MR Findings

                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                        • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                          • Imaging Recommendations

                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                              PATHOLOGY

                              • General Features

                                • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                  • Microscopic Features

                                    CLINICAL ISSUES

                                    • Presentation

                                      • Demographics

                                        • Natural History & Prognosis

                                          • Treatment

                                            DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                            • Consider

                                              • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                Selected References

                                                1. Akhaddar A et al: Solitary osteochondroma of the cervical spine presenting as recurrent torticollis. Pan Afr Med J. 17:271, 2014
                                                2. Ruivo C et al: Spinal chondrosarcoma arising from a solitary lumbar osteochondroma. JBR-BTR. 97(1):21-4, 2014
                                                3. Rustagi T et al: C2 compressive osteochondroma with transient neurologic symptoms in a pediatric patient. Spine J. 14(10):2516-7, 2014
                                                4. Aldea S et al: Acute spinal cord compression in hereditary multiple exostoses. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 148(2):195-8; discussion 198, 2006
                                                5. Maheshwari AV et al: Osteochondroma of C7 vertebra presenting as compressive myelopathy in a patient with nonhereditary (nonfamilial/sporadic) multiple exostoses. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 126(10):654-9, 2006
                                                6. Moon KS et al: Osteochondroma of the cervical spine extending multiple segments with cord compression. Pediatr Neurosurg. 42(5):304-7, 2006
                                                7. Kouwenhoven JW et al: Headache due to an osteochondroma of the axis. Eur Spine J. 13(8):746-9, 2004
                                                8. Taitz J et al: Osteochondroma after total body irradiation: an age-related complication. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 42(3):225-9, 2004
                                                9. Akagi S et al: Osteochondroma of the upper cervical spine presenting as vertigo. Orthopedics. 26(2):187-8, 2003
                                                10. Fiechtl JF et al: Spinal osteochondroma presenting as atypical spinal curvature: a case report. Spine. 28(13):E252-5, 2003
                                                11. Jones KB et al: Of hedgehogs and hereditary bone tumors: re-examination of the pathogenesis of osteochondromas. Iowa Orthop J. 23:87-95, 2003
                                                12. Cirak B et al: Cervical osteochondroma as a cause of spinal cord compression in a patient with hereditary multiple exostoses: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings. Australas Radiol. 46(3):309-11, 2002
                                                13. Gorospe L et al: Radiation-induced osteochondroma of the T4 vertebra causing spinal cord compression. Eur Radiol. 12(4):844-8, 2002
                                                14. Pierz KA et al: Hereditary multiple exostoses: one center's experience and review of etiology. Clin Orthop. (401):49-59, 2002
                                                15. Sharma MC et al: Osteochondroma of the spine: an enigmatic tumor of the spinal cord. A series of 10 cases. J Neurosurg Sci. 46(2):66-70; discussion 70, 2002
                                                16. Jose Alcaraz Mexia M et al: Osteochondroma of the thoracic spine and scoliosis. Spine. 26(9):1082-5, 2001
                                                17. Murphey MD et al: Imaging of osteochondroma: variants and complications with radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 20(5):1407-34, 2000
                                                18. Ratliff J et al: Osteochondroma of the C5 lamina with cord compression: case report and review of the literature. Spine. 25(10):1293-5, 2000
                                                19. Silber JS et al: A solitary osteochondroma of the pediatric thoracic spine: a case report and review of the literature. Am J Orthop. 29(9):711-4, 2000
                                                20. Wuyts W et al: Molecular basis of multiple exostoses: mutations in the EXT1 and EXT2 genes. Hum Mutat. 15(3):220-7, 2000
                                                21. Govender S et al: Osteochondroma with compression of the spinal cord. A report of two cases. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 81(4):667-9, 1999
                                                22. Mikawa Y et al: Cervical spinal cord compression in hereditary multiple exostoses. Report of a case and a review of the literature. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 116(1-2):112-5, 1997
                                                23. Okuyama K et al: Huge solitary osteochondroma at T11 level causing myelopathy: case report. Spinal Cord. 35(11):773-6, 1997
                                                24. Murphey MD et al: From the archives of the AFIP. Primary tumors of the spine: radiologic pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 16(5):1131-58, 1996
                                                25. Morikawa M et al: Osteochondroma of the cervical spine. MR findings. Clin Imaging. 19(4):275-8, 1995
                                                Related Anatomy
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                                                Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                                References
                                                Tables

                                                Tables

                                                KEY FACTS

                                                • Terminology

                                                  • Imaging

                                                    • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                      • Pathology

                                                        • Clinical Issues

                                                          • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                            TERMINOLOGY

                                                            • Abbreviations

                                                              • Osteochondroma (OC)
                                                              • Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME)
                                                            • Synonyms

                                                              • Osteocartilaginous exostosis, exostosis
                                                              • HME, a.k.a. diaphyseal aclasis, multiple cartilaginous exostoses
                                                            • Definitions

                                                              • Cartilage-capped osseous excrescence contiguous with parent bone

                                                            IMAGING

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Radiographic Findings

                                                                • CT Findings

                                                                  • MR Findings

                                                                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                                      • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                                            • General Features

                                                                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                                • Microscopic Features

                                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                                          • Consider

                                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                              Selected References

                                                                                              1. Akhaddar A et al: Solitary osteochondroma of the cervical spine presenting as recurrent torticollis. Pan Afr Med J. 17:271, 2014
                                                                                              2. Ruivo C et al: Spinal chondrosarcoma arising from a solitary lumbar osteochondroma. JBR-BTR. 97(1):21-4, 2014
                                                                                              3. Rustagi T et al: C2 compressive osteochondroma with transient neurologic symptoms in a pediatric patient. Spine J. 14(10):2516-7, 2014
                                                                                              4. Aldea S et al: Acute spinal cord compression in hereditary multiple exostoses. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 148(2):195-8; discussion 198, 2006
                                                                                              5. Maheshwari AV et al: Osteochondroma of C7 vertebra presenting as compressive myelopathy in a patient with nonhereditary (nonfamilial/sporadic) multiple exostoses. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 126(10):654-9, 2006
                                                                                              6. Moon KS et al: Osteochondroma of the cervical spine extending multiple segments with cord compression. Pediatr Neurosurg. 42(5):304-7, 2006
                                                                                              7. Kouwenhoven JW et al: Headache due to an osteochondroma of the axis. Eur Spine J. 13(8):746-9, 2004
                                                                                              8. Taitz J et al: Osteochondroma after total body irradiation: an age-related complication. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 42(3):225-9, 2004
                                                                                              9. Akagi S et al: Osteochondroma of the upper cervical spine presenting as vertigo. Orthopedics. 26(2):187-8, 2003
                                                                                              10. Fiechtl JF et al: Spinal osteochondroma presenting as atypical spinal curvature: a case report. Spine. 28(13):E252-5, 2003
                                                                                              11. Jones KB et al: Of hedgehogs and hereditary bone tumors: re-examination of the pathogenesis of osteochondromas. Iowa Orthop J. 23:87-95, 2003
                                                                                              12. Cirak B et al: Cervical osteochondroma as a cause of spinal cord compression in a patient with hereditary multiple exostoses: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings. Australas Radiol. 46(3):309-11, 2002
                                                                                              13. Gorospe L et al: Radiation-induced osteochondroma of the T4 vertebra causing spinal cord compression. Eur Radiol. 12(4):844-8, 2002
                                                                                              14. Pierz KA et al: Hereditary multiple exostoses: one center's experience and review of etiology. Clin Orthop. (401):49-59, 2002
                                                                                              15. Sharma MC et al: Osteochondroma of the spine: an enigmatic tumor of the spinal cord. A series of 10 cases. J Neurosurg Sci. 46(2):66-70; discussion 70, 2002
                                                                                              16. Jose Alcaraz Mexia M et al: Osteochondroma of the thoracic spine and scoliosis. Spine. 26(9):1082-5, 2001
                                                                                              17. Murphey MD et al: Imaging of osteochondroma: variants and complications with radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 20(5):1407-34, 2000
                                                                                              18. Ratliff J et al: Osteochondroma of the C5 lamina with cord compression: case report and review of the literature. Spine. 25(10):1293-5, 2000
                                                                                              19. Silber JS et al: A solitary osteochondroma of the pediatric thoracic spine: a case report and review of the literature. Am J Orthop. 29(9):711-4, 2000
                                                                                              20. Wuyts W et al: Molecular basis of multiple exostoses: mutations in the EXT1 and EXT2 genes. Hum Mutat. 15(3):220-7, 2000
                                                                                              21. Govender S et al: Osteochondroma with compression of the spinal cord. A report of two cases. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 81(4):667-9, 1999
                                                                                              22. Mikawa Y et al: Cervical spinal cord compression in hereditary multiple exostoses. Report of a case and a review of the literature. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 116(1-2):112-5, 1997
                                                                                              23. Okuyama K et al: Huge solitary osteochondroma at T11 level causing myelopathy: case report. Spinal Cord. 35(11):773-6, 1997
                                                                                              24. Murphey MD et al: From the archives of the AFIP. Primary tumors of the spine: radiologic pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 16(5):1131-58, 1996
                                                                                              25. Morikawa M et al: Osteochondroma of the cervical spine. MR findings. Clin Imaging. 19(4):275-8, 1995