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Osteomyelitis
A. Carlson Merrow, Jr., MD, FAAP
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Top Differential Diagnoses

      • Pathology

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Definitions

            • Osteomyelitis: Bone infection, most commonly bacterial

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • Radiographic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • MR Findings

                    • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                      • Imaging Recommendations

                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                          PATHOLOGY

                          • General Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                        Selected References

                                        1. Al-Qwbani M et al: Kingella kingae-associated pediatric osteoarticular infections: an overview of 566 reported cases. Clin Pediatr (Phila). ePub, 2016
                                        2. Davis JT et al: Pediatric whole-body MRI: A review of current imaging techniques and clinical applications. J Magn Reson Imaging. ePub, 2016
                                        3. Rosenfeld S et al: Predicting the presence of adjacent infections in septic arthritis in children. J Pediatr Orthop. 36(1):70-4, 2016
                                        4. Delgado J et al: Utility of unenhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted MRI in children with sickle cell disease -- can it differentiate bone infarcts from acute osteomyelitis? Pediatr Radiol. 45(13):1981-7, 2015
                                        5. Ilharreborde B: Sequelae of pediatric osteoarticular infection. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 101(1 Suppl):S129-37, 2015
                                        6. K Schallert E et al: Metaphyseal osteomyelitis in children: how often does MRI-documented joint effusion or epiphyseal extension of edema indicate coexisting septic arthritis? Pediatr Radiol. 45(8):1174-81, 2015
                                        7. Monsalve J et al: Septic arthritis in children: frequency of coexisting unsuspected osteomyelitis and implications on imaging work-up and management. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 204(6):1289-95, 2015
                                        8. Dodwell ER: Osteomyelitis and septic arthritis in children: current concepts. Curr Opin Pediatr. 25(1):58-63, 2013
                                        9. Falip C et al: Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO): a longitudinal case series review. Pediatr Radiol. 43(3):355-75, 2013
                                        10. Browne LP et al: Community-acquired staphylococcal musculoskeletal infection in infants and young children: necessity of contrast-enhanced MRI for the diagnosis of growth cartilage involvement. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 198(1):194-9, 2012
                                        11. Kanavaki A et al: Can early MRI distinguish between Kingella kingae and Gram-positive cocci in osteoarticular infections in young children? Pediatr Radiol. 42(1):57-62, 2012
                                        12. Jaramillo D: Infection: musculoskeletal. Pediatr Radiol. 41 Suppl 1:S127-34, 2011
                                        13. Kan JH et al: Clinical impact of gadolinium in the MRI diagnosis of musculoskeletal infection in children. Pediatr Radiol. 40(7):1197-205, 2010
                                        14. Hawkshead JJ 3rd et al: Comparative severity of pediatric osteomyelitis attributable to methicillin-resistant versus methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. J Pediatr Orthop. 29(1):85-90, 2009
                                        15. Ranson M: Imaging of pediatric musculoskeletal infection. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 13(3):277-99, 2009
                                        16. McGuinness B et al: The "penumbra sign" on T1-weighted MRI for differentiating musculoskeletal infection from tumour. Skeletal Radiol. 36(5):417-21, 2007
                                        17. Davies AM et al: Intramedullary and extramedullary fat globules on magnetic resonance imaging as a diagnostic sign for osteomyelitis. Eur Radiol. 15(10):2194-9, 2005
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Imaging

                                          • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                            • Pathology

                                              • Clinical Issues

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Osteomyelitis: Bone infection, most commonly bacterial

                                                IMAGING

                                                • General Features

                                                  • Radiographic Findings

                                                    • CT Findings

                                                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                        • MR Findings

                                                          • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                                • General Features

                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                          • Consider

                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. Al-Qwbani M et al: Kingella kingae-associated pediatric osteoarticular infections: an overview of 566 reported cases. Clin Pediatr (Phila). ePub, 2016
                                                                              2. Davis JT et al: Pediatric whole-body MRI: A review of current imaging techniques and clinical applications. J Magn Reson Imaging. ePub, 2016
                                                                              3. Rosenfeld S et al: Predicting the presence of adjacent infections in septic arthritis in children. J Pediatr Orthop. 36(1):70-4, 2016
                                                                              4. Delgado J et al: Utility of unenhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted MRI in children with sickle cell disease -- can it differentiate bone infarcts from acute osteomyelitis? Pediatr Radiol. 45(13):1981-7, 2015
                                                                              5. Ilharreborde B: Sequelae of pediatric osteoarticular infection. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 101(1 Suppl):S129-37, 2015
                                                                              6. K Schallert E et al: Metaphyseal osteomyelitis in children: how often does MRI-documented joint effusion or epiphyseal extension of edema indicate coexisting septic arthritis? Pediatr Radiol. 45(8):1174-81, 2015
                                                                              7. Monsalve J et al: Septic arthritis in children: frequency of coexisting unsuspected osteomyelitis and implications on imaging work-up and management. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 204(6):1289-95, 2015
                                                                              8. Dodwell ER: Osteomyelitis and septic arthritis in children: current concepts. Curr Opin Pediatr. 25(1):58-63, 2013
                                                                              9. Falip C et al: Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO): a longitudinal case series review. Pediatr Radiol. 43(3):355-75, 2013
                                                                              10. Browne LP et al: Community-acquired staphylococcal musculoskeletal infection in infants and young children: necessity of contrast-enhanced MRI for the diagnosis of growth cartilage involvement. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 198(1):194-9, 2012
                                                                              11. Kanavaki A et al: Can early MRI distinguish between Kingella kingae and Gram-positive cocci in osteoarticular infections in young children? Pediatr Radiol. 42(1):57-62, 2012
                                                                              12. Jaramillo D: Infection: musculoskeletal. Pediatr Radiol. 41 Suppl 1:S127-34, 2011
                                                                              13. Kan JH et al: Clinical impact of gadolinium in the MRI diagnosis of musculoskeletal infection in children. Pediatr Radiol. 40(7):1197-205, 2010
                                                                              14. Hawkshead JJ 3rd et al: Comparative severity of pediatric osteomyelitis attributable to methicillin-resistant versus methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. J Pediatr Orthop. 29(1):85-90, 2009
                                                                              15. Ranson M: Imaging of pediatric musculoskeletal infection. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 13(3):277-99, 2009
                                                                              16. McGuinness B et al: The "penumbra sign" on T1-weighted MRI for differentiating musculoskeletal infection from tumour. Skeletal Radiol. 36(5):417-21, 2007
                                                                              17. Davies AM et al: Intramedullary and extramedullary fat globules on magnetic resonance imaging as a diagnostic sign for osteomyelitis. Eur Radiol. 15(10):2194-9, 2005