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Ovarian Inclusion Cyst
Marc S. Tubay, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Clinical Issues

          TERMINOLOGY

          • Abbreviations

            • Ovarian inclusion cyst (OIC)
          • Synonyms

            • Epithelial inclusion cyst
            • Cortical inclusion cyst
            • Germinal inclusion cyst
            • Ovarian epithelial inclusions
          • Definitions

            • Invagination of ovarian cortical surface epithelium with loss of communication with ovarian surface and subsequent cyst formation

          IMAGING

          • General Features

            • CT Findings

              • MR Findings

                • Ultrasonographic Findings

                  • Imaging Recommendations

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                          • Microscopic Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Demographics

                                • Natural History & Prognosis

                                  • Treatment

                                    DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                    • Consider

                                      • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                        Selected References

                                        1. Laing FC et al: US of the ovary and adnexa: to worry or not to worry? Radiographics. 32(6):1621-39; discussion 1640-2, 2012
                                        2. Mohaghegh P et al: Imaging strategy for early ovarian cancer: characterization of adnexal masses with conventional and advanced imaging techniques. Radiographics. 32(6):1751-73, 2012
                                        3. Sharma A et al: Assessing the malignant potential of ovarian inclusion cysts in postmenopausal women within the UK Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS): a prospective cohort study. BJOG. 119(2):207-19, 2012
                                        4. Levine D et al: Management of asymptomatic ovarian and other adnexal cysts imaged at US: Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound Consensus Conference Statement. Radiology. 256(3):943-54, 2010
                                        5. Takeuchi M et al: Manifestations of the female reproductive organs on MR images: changes induced by various physiologic states. Radiographics. 30(4):1147, 2010
                                        6. Dubeau L: The cell of origin of ovarian epithelial tumours. Lancet Oncol. 9(12):1191-7, 2008
                                        7. Dikensoy E et al: Serum CA-125 is a good predictor of benign disease in patients with postmenopausal ovarian cysts. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 28(1):45-7, 2007
                                        8. McDonald JM et al: The incidental postmenopausal adnexal mass. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 49(3):506-16, 2006
                                        9. Dørum A et al: Prevalence and histologic diagnosis of adnexal cysts in postmenopausal women: an autopsy study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 192(1):48-54, 2005
                                        10. Heller DS et al: Are germinal inclusion cysts markers of ovulation? Gynecol Oncol. 96(2):496-9, 2005
                                        11. Jung SE et al: CT and MR imaging of ovarian tumors with emphasis on differential diagnosis. Radiographics. 22(6):1305-25, 2002
                                        12. Feeley KM et al: Precursor lesions of ovarian epithelial malignancy. Histopathology. 38(2):87-95, 2001
                                        13. Kupfer MC et al: Transvaginal sonographic evaluation of multiple peripherally distributed echogenic foci of the ovary: prevalence and histologic correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 171(2):483-6, 1998
                                        14. Brandt KR et al: Focal calcifications in otherwise ultrasonographically normal ovaries. Radiology. 198(2):415-7, 1996
                                        15. Outwater EK et al: Normal adnexa uteri specimens: anatomic basis of MR imaging features. Radiology. 201(3):751-5, 1996
                                        16. Atri M et al: Endovaginal sonographic appearance of benign ovarian masses. Radiographics. 14(4):747-60; discussion 761-2, 1994
                                        17. Mittal KR et al: Contralateral ovary in unilateral ovarian carcinoma: a search for preneoplastic lesions. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 12(1):59-63, 1993
                                        Related Anatomy
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                                        Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                        References
                                        Tables

                                        Tables

                                        KEY FACTS

                                        • Terminology

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                              • Clinical Issues

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Abbreviations

                                                  • Ovarian inclusion cyst (OIC)
                                                • Synonyms

                                                  • Epithelial inclusion cyst
                                                  • Cortical inclusion cyst
                                                  • Germinal inclusion cyst
                                                  • Ovarian epithelial inclusions
                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Invagination of ovarian cortical surface epithelium with loss of communication with ovarian surface and subsequent cyst formation

                                                IMAGING

                                                • General Features

                                                  • CT Findings

                                                    • MR Findings

                                                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                        • Imaging Recommendations

                                                          DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                            PATHOLOGY

                                                            • General Features

                                                              • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                • Microscopic Features

                                                                  CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                  • Presentation

                                                                    • Demographics

                                                                      • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                        • Treatment

                                                                          DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                          • Consider

                                                                            • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                              Selected References

                                                                              1. Laing FC et al: US of the ovary and adnexa: to worry or not to worry? Radiographics. 32(6):1621-39; discussion 1640-2, 2012
                                                                              2. Mohaghegh P et al: Imaging strategy for early ovarian cancer: characterization of adnexal masses with conventional and advanced imaging techniques. Radiographics. 32(6):1751-73, 2012
                                                                              3. Sharma A et al: Assessing the malignant potential of ovarian inclusion cysts in postmenopausal women within the UK Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS): a prospective cohort study. BJOG. 119(2):207-19, 2012
                                                                              4. Levine D et al: Management of asymptomatic ovarian and other adnexal cysts imaged at US: Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound Consensus Conference Statement. Radiology. 256(3):943-54, 2010
                                                                              5. Takeuchi M et al: Manifestations of the female reproductive organs on MR images: changes induced by various physiologic states. Radiographics. 30(4):1147, 2010
                                                                              6. Dubeau L: The cell of origin of ovarian epithelial tumours. Lancet Oncol. 9(12):1191-7, 2008
                                                                              7. Dikensoy E et al: Serum CA-125 is a good predictor of benign disease in patients with postmenopausal ovarian cysts. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 28(1):45-7, 2007
                                                                              8. McDonald JM et al: The incidental postmenopausal adnexal mass. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 49(3):506-16, 2006
                                                                              9. Dørum A et al: Prevalence and histologic diagnosis of adnexal cysts in postmenopausal women: an autopsy study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 192(1):48-54, 2005
                                                                              10. Heller DS et al: Are germinal inclusion cysts markers of ovulation? Gynecol Oncol. 96(2):496-9, 2005
                                                                              11. Jung SE et al: CT and MR imaging of ovarian tumors with emphasis on differential diagnosis. Radiographics. 22(6):1305-25, 2002
                                                                              12. Feeley KM et al: Precursor lesions of ovarian epithelial malignancy. Histopathology. 38(2):87-95, 2001
                                                                              13. Kupfer MC et al: Transvaginal sonographic evaluation of multiple peripherally distributed echogenic foci of the ovary: prevalence and histologic correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 171(2):483-6, 1998
                                                                              14. Brandt KR et al: Focal calcifications in otherwise ultrasonographically normal ovaries. Radiology. 198(2):415-7, 1996
                                                                              15. Outwater EK et al: Normal adnexa uteri specimens: anatomic basis of MR imaging features. Radiology. 201(3):751-5, 1996
                                                                              16. Atri M et al: Endovaginal sonographic appearance of benign ovarian masses. Radiographics. 14(4):747-60; discussion 761-2, 1994
                                                                              17. Mittal KR et al: Contralateral ovary in unilateral ovarian carcinoma: a search for preneoplastic lesions. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 12(1):59-63, 1993