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Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor
Akram M. Shaaban, MBBCh; Evis Sala, MD, PhD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            TERMINOLOGY

            • Abbreviations

              • Yolk sac tumor (YST)
            • Synonyms

              • Endodermal sinus tumor
            • Definitions

              • Classified as ovarian malignant germ cell tumor (OMGCT)

            IMAGING

            • General Features

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                      PATHOLOGY

                      • General Features

                        • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Alotaibi MO et al: Imaging of ovarian teratomas in children: a 9-year review. Can Assoc Radiol J. 61(1):23-8, 2010
                                          2. Lal A et al: Endodermal sinus tumor: a rare cause of calcified peritoneal implants. Cancer Imaging. 9:29-31, 2009
                                          3. Choi HJ et al: Yolk sac tumor of the ovary: CT findings. Abdom Imaging. 33(6):736-9, 2008
                                          4. De Backer A et al: Ovarian germ cell tumors in children: a clinical study of 66 patients. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 46(4):459-64, 2006
                                          5. Aoki Y et al: Yolk sac tumor of the ovary during pregnancy: a case report. Gynecol Oncol. 99(2):497-9, 2005
                                          6. Ayhan A et al: Endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary: the Hacettepe University experience. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 123(2):230-4, 2005
                                          7. Ulbright TM: Germ cell tumors of the gonads: a selective review emphasizing problems in differential diagnosis, newly appreciated, and controversial issues. Mod Pathol. 18 Suppl 2:S61-79, 2005
                                          8. Young RH: Sex cord-stromal tumors of the ovary and testis: their similarities and differences with consideration of selected problems. Mod Pathol. 18 Suppl 2:S81-98, 2005
                                          9. Lopez JM et al: Ovarian yolk sac tumor associated with endometrioid carcinoma and mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary. Ann Diagn Pathol. 7(5):300-5, 2003
                                          10. Nawa A et al: Prognostic factors of patients with yolk sac tumors of the ovary. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 184(6):1182-8, 2001
                                          11. Oh C et al: Ovarian endodermal sinus tumor in a postmenopausal woman. Gynecol Oncol. 82(2):392-4, 2001
                                          12. Yamaoka T et al: Yolk sac tumor of the ovary: radiologic-pathologic correlation in four cases. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 24(4):605-9, 2000
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Terminology

                                            • Imaging

                                              • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                • Pathology

                                                  • Clinical Issues

                                                    TERMINOLOGY

                                                    • Abbreviations

                                                      • Yolk sac tumor (YST)
                                                    • Synonyms

                                                      • Endodermal sinus tumor
                                                    • Definitions

                                                      • Classified as ovarian malignant germ cell tumor (OMGCT)

                                                    IMAGING

                                                    • General Features

                                                      • CT Findings

                                                        • MR Findings

                                                          • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                            DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                              PATHOLOGY

                                                              • General Features

                                                                • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                  • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                    • Microscopic Features

                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                              • Consider

                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Alotaibi MO et al: Imaging of ovarian teratomas in children: a 9-year review. Can Assoc Radiol J. 61(1):23-8, 2010
                                                                                  2. Lal A et al: Endodermal sinus tumor: a rare cause of calcified peritoneal implants. Cancer Imaging. 9:29-31, 2009
                                                                                  3. Choi HJ et al: Yolk sac tumor of the ovary: CT findings. Abdom Imaging. 33(6):736-9, 2008
                                                                                  4. De Backer A et al: Ovarian germ cell tumors in children: a clinical study of 66 patients. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 46(4):459-64, 2006
                                                                                  5. Aoki Y et al: Yolk sac tumor of the ovary during pregnancy: a case report. Gynecol Oncol. 99(2):497-9, 2005
                                                                                  6. Ayhan A et al: Endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary: the Hacettepe University experience. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 123(2):230-4, 2005
                                                                                  7. Ulbright TM: Germ cell tumors of the gonads: a selective review emphasizing problems in differential diagnosis, newly appreciated, and controversial issues. Mod Pathol. 18 Suppl 2:S61-79, 2005
                                                                                  8. Young RH: Sex cord-stromal tumors of the ovary and testis: their similarities and differences with consideration of selected problems. Mod Pathol. 18 Suppl 2:S81-98, 2005
                                                                                  9. Lopez JM et al: Ovarian yolk sac tumor associated with endometrioid carcinoma and mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary. Ann Diagn Pathol. 7(5):300-5, 2003
                                                                                  10. Nawa A et al: Prognostic factors of patients with yolk sac tumors of the ovary. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 184(6):1182-8, 2001
                                                                                  11. Oh C et al: Ovarian endodermal sinus tumor in a postmenopausal woman. Gynecol Oncol. 82(2):392-4, 2001
                                                                                  12. Yamaoka T et al: Yolk sac tumor of the ovary: radiologic-pathologic correlation in four cases. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 24(4):605-9, 2000