link
Bookmarks
Overview of the Posterior Compartment
Rania Farouk El Sayed, MD, PhD
To access 4,300 diagnoses written by the world's leading experts in radiology, please log in or subscribe.Log inSubscribe

Anatomy of Anal Sphincter Complex (ASCx)

  • Description

    • Internal Anal Sphincter (IAS)

      • Intersphincteric Space and Longitudinal Smooth Muscle Layer

        • External Anal Sphincter (EAS)

          • Puborectalis

            Physiology of Anorectal Region

            • Factors Contributing to Anal Continence

              • Rectoanal Inhibitory Reflex (RAIR)

                Clinical Evaluation Anorectal Dysfunction

                • Fecal Incontinence

                  • Constipation and Obstructed Defecation

                    • Clinical Examination for Assessment of Anal Sphincter and Pelvic Floor

                      Anorectal Physiology Tests in Anorectal Dysfunction

                      • Anorectal Manometry

                        • Electromyography (EMG)

                          • Pudendal Nerve Terminal Motor Latency (PNTML) Test

                            • Motor Evoked Potentials

                              • Sitzmarks Transit Study

                                Dynamic and Static Phased-Array MR

                                • Technique

                                  • Imaging Planes and Field of View

                                    • MR Appearance of ASCx

                                      • Topographic MR Anatomy

                                        • Dimensions of ASCx

                                          Endoanal MR

                                          • Indication

                                            • Technique

                                              • Normal Appearance of Anal Sphincter

                                                Conventional Evacuation Proctography ("Defecography")

                                                • Indications

                                                  • Technique

                                                    • Image Analysis

                                                      • Findings in Normal Subjects

                                                        • Limitations

                                                          Endoanal Sonography

                                                          • Technique

                                                            • Normal Anatomy and Diagnostic Criteria

                                                              • Limitations

                                                                Selected References

                                                                1. El Sayed RF et al: Pelvic floor dysfunction: assessment with combined analysis of static and dynamic MR imaging findings. Radiology. 248(2):518-30, 2008
                                                                2. Bartram CI: Fecal incontinence. In Bartram CI et al: Imaging Pelvic Floor Disorders. Berlin, New York: Springer, 2003
                                                                3. Beets-Tan RG et al: Measurement of anal sphincter muscles: endoanal US, endoanal MR imaging, or phased-array MR imaging? A study with healthy volunteers. Radiology. 220(1):81-9, 2001
                                                                4. Beets-Tan RG et al: High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the anorectal region without an endocoil. Abdom Imaging. 24(6):576-81; discussion 582-4, 1999
                                                                5. Benson JT: Female pelvic floor disorders: Investigation and management. New York: W. W. Norton, 1992
                                                                Related Anatomy
                                                                Loading...
                                                                Related Differential Diagnoses
                                                                Loading...
                                                                References
                                                                Tables

                                                                Tables

                                                                Anatomy of Anal Sphincter Complex (ASCx)

                                                                • Description

                                                                  • Internal Anal Sphincter (IAS)

                                                                    • Intersphincteric Space and Longitudinal Smooth Muscle Layer

                                                                      • External Anal Sphincter (EAS)

                                                                        • Puborectalis

                                                                          Physiology of Anorectal Region

                                                                          • Factors Contributing to Anal Continence

                                                                            • Rectoanal Inhibitory Reflex (RAIR)

                                                                              Clinical Evaluation Anorectal Dysfunction

                                                                              • Fecal Incontinence

                                                                                • Constipation and Obstructed Defecation

                                                                                  • Clinical Examination for Assessment of Anal Sphincter and Pelvic Floor

                                                                                    Anorectal Physiology Tests in Anorectal Dysfunction

                                                                                    • Anorectal Manometry

                                                                                      • Electromyography (EMG)

                                                                                        • Pudendal Nerve Terminal Motor Latency (PNTML) Test

                                                                                          • Motor Evoked Potentials

                                                                                            • Sitzmarks Transit Study

                                                                                              Dynamic and Static Phased-Array MR

                                                                                              • Technique

                                                                                                • Imaging Planes and Field of View

                                                                                                  • MR Appearance of ASCx

                                                                                                    • Topographic MR Anatomy

                                                                                                      • Dimensions of ASCx

                                                                                                        Endoanal MR

                                                                                                        • Indication

                                                                                                          • Technique

                                                                                                            • Normal Appearance of Anal Sphincter

                                                                                                              Conventional Evacuation Proctography ("Defecography")

                                                                                                              • Indications

                                                                                                                • Technique

                                                                                                                  • Image Analysis

                                                                                                                    • Findings in Normal Subjects

                                                                                                                      • Limitations

                                                                                                                        Endoanal Sonography

                                                                                                                        • Technique

                                                                                                                          • Normal Anatomy and Diagnostic Criteria

                                                                                                                            • Limitations

                                                                                                                              Selected References

                                                                                                                              1. El Sayed RF et al: Pelvic floor dysfunction: assessment with combined analysis of static and dynamic MR imaging findings. Radiology. 248(2):518-30, 2008
                                                                                                                              2. Bartram CI: Fecal incontinence. In Bartram CI et al: Imaging Pelvic Floor Disorders. Berlin, New York: Springer, 2003
                                                                                                                              3. Beets-Tan RG et al: Measurement of anal sphincter muscles: endoanal US, endoanal MR imaging, or phased-array MR imaging? A study with healthy volunteers. Radiology. 220(1):81-9, 2001
                                                                                                                              4. Beets-Tan RG et al: High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the anorectal region without an endocoil. Abdom Imaging. 24(6):576-81; discussion 582-4, 1999
                                                                                                                              5. Benson JT: Female pelvic floor disorders: Investigation and management. New York: W. W. Norton, 1992