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Pacemakers/ICDs
Jinglei Li, MD; Jonathan Hero Chung, MD; Sachin Saboo, MD, FRCR
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Pathology

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Abbreviations

          • Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD)
          • Automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (AICD)
          • Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT)
          • Leadless pacemakers (LP)
          • Wireless cardiac stimulation system for left ventricle (WiCS-LV)
          • Cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED)
        • Synonyms

          • Permanent pacing device
        • Definitions

          • Pacemakers (PM)
            • Permanently implanted, battery-operated electronic devices connected to endocardium or epicardium of heart by pacing wires or capsule-like electronic device without traditional pocket and wires (i.e., leadless pacemaker) using electrical impulses to regulate cardiac rate or rhythm
              • Substitute for natural pacemaker (sinus node)
          • ICDs
            • Permanently implanted, battery-operated electronic devices that administer electric shocks via intracardiac or epicardial leads to heart to restore normal cardiac rhythm if defined rapid ventricular arrhythmias are sensed

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • Radiographic Findings

            • Fluoroscopic Findings

              • CT Findings

                • MR Findings

                  • Ultrasonographic Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            CLINICAL ISSUES

                            • Presentation

                              • Treatment

                                DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                • Consider

                                  • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                    Selected References

                                    1. Garg J et al: Leadless cardiac pacemakers: paradigm shift in cardiac pacing. Heart Rhythm. 16(1):72-3, 2019
                                    2. Conyers JM et al: Imaging features of leadless cardiovascular devices. Diagn Interv Radiol. 24(4):203-208, 2018
                                    3. Muthalaly RG et al: MRI in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices. Radiology. 289(2):281-92, 2018
                                    4. Sigakis CJG et al: Radiographic review of current therapeutic and monitoring devices in the chest. Radiographics. 38(4):1027-45, 2018
                                    5. Reddy VY et al: Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy With Wireless Left Ventricular Endocardial Pacing: The SELECT-LV Study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 69(17):2119-129, 2017
                                    6. Sommer T et al: MR imaging in patients with cardiac pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators. Rofo. 189(3):204-17, 2017
                                    7. Tjong FV et al: Permanent Leadless Cardiac Pacemaker Therapy: A Comprehensive Review. Circulation. 135(15):1458-1470, 2017
                                    8. Alandete Germán SP et al: Pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators, unknown to chest radiography: review, complications and systematic reading. Eur J Radiol. 84(3):499-508, 2015
                                    9. Costelloe CM et al: Radiography of pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 199(6):1252-8, 2012
                                    10. Chen HY: Delayed isolated hemothorax caused by temporary pacemaker: a case report. Int J Cardiol. 114(3):e109-10, 2007
                                    11. Levin G et al: Noncardiac implantable pacemakers and stimulators: current role and radiographic appearance. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 188(4):984-91, 2007
                                    12. Ellery SM et al: Complications of biventricular pacing. Eur. Heart J. Suppl. 6(D):D117-21, 2004
                                    13. McCollough CH et al: Effects of CT irradiation on implantable cardiac rhythm management devices. Radiology. 243(3):766-74, 2007
                                    14. Kühlkamp V et al: Initial experience with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator incorporating cardiac resynchronization therapy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 39(5):790-7, 2002
                                    Related Anatomy
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                                    Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                    References
                                    Tables

                                    Tables

                                    KEY FACTS

                                    • Terminology

                                      • Imaging

                                        • Pathology

                                          TERMINOLOGY

                                          • Abbreviations

                                            • Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD)
                                            • Automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (AICD)
                                            • Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT)
                                            • Leadless pacemakers (LP)
                                            • Wireless cardiac stimulation system for left ventricle (WiCS-LV)
                                            • Cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED)
                                          • Synonyms

                                            • Permanent pacing device
                                          • Definitions

                                            • Pacemakers (PM)
                                              • Permanently implanted, battery-operated electronic devices connected to endocardium or epicardium of heart by pacing wires or capsule-like electronic device without traditional pocket and wires (i.e., leadless pacemaker) using electrical impulses to regulate cardiac rate or rhythm
                                                • Substitute for natural pacemaker (sinus node)
                                            • ICDs
                                              • Permanently implanted, battery-operated electronic devices that administer electric shocks via intracardiac or epicardial leads to heart to restore normal cardiac rhythm if defined rapid ventricular arrhythmias are sensed

                                          IMAGING

                                          • General Features

                                            • Radiographic Findings

                                              • Fluoroscopic Findings

                                                • CT Findings

                                                  • MR Findings

                                                    • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                      • Imaging Recommendations

                                                        DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                          PATHOLOGY

                                                          • General Features

                                                            • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                              • Presentation

                                                                • Treatment

                                                                  DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                  • Consider

                                                                    • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                      Selected References

                                                                      1. Garg J et al: Leadless cardiac pacemakers: paradigm shift in cardiac pacing. Heart Rhythm. 16(1):72-3, 2019
                                                                      2. Conyers JM et al: Imaging features of leadless cardiovascular devices. Diagn Interv Radiol. 24(4):203-208, 2018
                                                                      3. Muthalaly RG et al: MRI in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices. Radiology. 289(2):281-92, 2018
                                                                      4. Sigakis CJG et al: Radiographic review of current therapeutic and monitoring devices in the chest. Radiographics. 38(4):1027-45, 2018
                                                                      5. Reddy VY et al: Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy With Wireless Left Ventricular Endocardial Pacing: The SELECT-LV Study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 69(17):2119-129, 2017
                                                                      6. Sommer T et al: MR imaging in patients with cardiac pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators. Rofo. 189(3):204-17, 2017
                                                                      7. Tjong FV et al: Permanent Leadless Cardiac Pacemaker Therapy: A Comprehensive Review. Circulation. 135(15):1458-1470, 2017
                                                                      8. Alandete Germán SP et al: Pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators, unknown to chest radiography: review, complications and systematic reading. Eur J Radiol. 84(3):499-508, 2015
                                                                      9. Costelloe CM et al: Radiography of pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 199(6):1252-8, 2012
                                                                      10. Chen HY: Delayed isolated hemothorax caused by temporary pacemaker: a case report. Int J Cardiol. 114(3):e109-10, 2007
                                                                      11. Levin G et al: Noncardiac implantable pacemakers and stimulators: current role and radiographic appearance. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 188(4):984-91, 2007
                                                                      12. Ellery SM et al: Complications of biventricular pacing. Eur. Heart J. Suppl. 6(D):D117-21, 2004
                                                                      13. McCollough CH et al: Effects of CT irradiation on implantable cardiac rhythm management devices. Radiology. 243(3):766-74, 2007
                                                                      14. Kühlkamp V et al: Initial experience with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator incorporating cardiac resynchronization therapy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 39(5):790-7, 2002