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Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor
Sonya Y. Khan, MD; Fauzia Vandermeer, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Terminology

    • Imaging

      • Top Differential Diagnoses

        • Pathology

          • Clinical Issues

            • Diagnostic Checklist

              TERMINOLOGY

              • Synonyms

                • Pancreatic/gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET); pancreatic endocrine tumor (pET)
                • Historical terms: Islet cell tumor; carcinoid
              • Definitions

                • Solid epithelial neoplasm believed to arise from pluripotent pancreatic ductal cells with capacity to differentiate along neuroendocrine lines

              IMAGING

              • General Features

                • Transabdominal Ultrasound (TA US)

                  • Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS)

                    • Intraoperative Ultrasound (IOUS)

                      • CT Findings

                        • MR Findings

                          • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                            • Angiographic Findings

                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                  PATHOLOGY

                                  • General Features

                                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                        • Microscopic Features

                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                          • Presentation

                                            • Demographics

                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                • Treatment

                                                  Selected References

                                                  1. Hofman MS et al: Somatostatin receptor imaging with 68Ga DOTATATE PET/CT: clinical utility, normal patterns, pearls, and pitfalls in interpretation. Radiographics. 35(2):500-16, 2015
                                                  2. Kartalis N et al: Recent developments in imaging of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Ann Gastroenterol. 28(2):193-202, 2015
                                                  3. Kim KW et al: Update on the management of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors with emphasis on the role of imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 201(4):811-24, 2013
                                                  4. Sahani DV et al: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: role of imaging in diagnosis and management. Radiology. 266(1):38-61, 2013
                                                  5. Milan SA et al: Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas. Curr Opin Oncol. 24(1):46-55, 2012
                                                  6. Klimstra DS et al: The pathologic classification of neuroendocrine tumors: a review of nomenclature, grading, and staging systems. Pancreas. 39(6):707-12, 2010
                                                  7. Lewis RB et al: Pancreatic endocrine tumors: radiologic-clinicopathologic correlation. Radiographics. 30(6):1445-64, 2010
                                                  8. Herwick S et al: MRI of islet cell tumors of the pancreas. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 187(5):W472-80, 2006
                                                  9. Horton KM et al: Multi-detector row CT of pancreatic islet cell tumors. Radiographics. 26(2):453-64, 2006
                                                  10. Proye CA et al: Current concepts in functioning endocrine tumors of the pancreas. World J Surg. 28(12):1231-8, 2004
                                                  11. Marcos HB et al: Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas in von Hippel-Lindau disease: spectrum of appearances at CT and MR imaging with histopathologic comparison. Radiology. 225(3):751-8, 2002
                                                  12. Theni RF et al: Detection of small, functional islet cell tumors in the pancreas: selection of imaging sequences for optimal sensitivity. Radiology. 214(2):483-90, 2000
                                                  13. Vazquez Sequeiros E et al: The role of endoscopic ultrasonography in diagnosis, staging, and management of pancreatic disease states. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2(2):125-32, 2000
                                                  Related Anatomy
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                                                  Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                                  References
                                                  Tables

                                                  Tables

                                                  KEY FACTS

                                                  • Terminology

                                                    • Imaging

                                                      • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                                        • Pathology

                                                          • Clinical Issues

                                                            • Diagnostic Checklist

                                                              TERMINOLOGY

                                                              • Synonyms

                                                                • Pancreatic/gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET); pancreatic endocrine tumor (pET)
                                                                • Historical terms: Islet cell tumor; carcinoid
                                                              • Definitions

                                                                • Solid epithelial neoplasm believed to arise from pluripotent pancreatic ductal cells with capacity to differentiate along neuroendocrine lines

                                                              IMAGING

                                                              • General Features

                                                                • Transabdominal Ultrasound (TA US)

                                                                  • Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS)

                                                                    • Intraoperative Ultrasound (IOUS)

                                                                      • CT Findings

                                                                        • MR Findings

                                                                          • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                                            • Angiographic Findings

                                                                              • Imaging Recommendations

                                                                                DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                                  PATHOLOGY

                                                                                  • General Features

                                                                                    • Staging, Grading, & Classification

                                                                                      • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                                        • Microscopic Features

                                                                                          CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                                          • Presentation

                                                                                            • Demographics

                                                                                              • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                                                • Treatment

                                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                                  1. Hofman MS et al: Somatostatin receptor imaging with 68Ga DOTATATE PET/CT: clinical utility, normal patterns, pearls, and pitfalls in interpretation. Radiographics. 35(2):500-16, 2015
                                                                                                  2. Kartalis N et al: Recent developments in imaging of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Ann Gastroenterol. 28(2):193-202, 2015
                                                                                                  3. Kim KW et al: Update on the management of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors with emphasis on the role of imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 201(4):811-24, 2013
                                                                                                  4. Sahani DV et al: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: role of imaging in diagnosis and management. Radiology. 266(1):38-61, 2013
                                                                                                  5. Milan SA et al: Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas. Curr Opin Oncol. 24(1):46-55, 2012
                                                                                                  6. Klimstra DS et al: The pathologic classification of neuroendocrine tumors: a review of nomenclature, grading, and staging systems. Pancreas. 39(6):707-12, 2010
                                                                                                  7. Lewis RB et al: Pancreatic endocrine tumors: radiologic-clinicopathologic correlation. Radiographics. 30(6):1445-64, 2010
                                                                                                  8. Herwick S et al: MRI of islet cell tumors of the pancreas. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 187(5):W472-80, 2006
                                                                                                  9. Horton KM et al: Multi-detector row CT of pancreatic islet cell tumors. Radiographics. 26(2):453-64, 2006
                                                                                                  10. Proye CA et al: Current concepts in functioning endocrine tumors of the pancreas. World J Surg. 28(12):1231-8, 2004
                                                                                                  11. Marcos HB et al: Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas in von Hippel-Lindau disease: spectrum of appearances at CT and MR imaging with histopathologic comparison. Radiology. 225(3):751-8, 2002
                                                                                                  12. Theni RF et al: Detection of small, functional islet cell tumors in the pancreas: selection of imaging sequences for optimal sensitivity. Radiology. 214(2):483-90, 2000
                                                                                                  13. Vazquez Sequeiros E et al: The role of endoscopic ultrasonography in diagnosis, staging, and management of pancreatic disease states. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2(2):125-32, 2000