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Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors
Siva P. Raman, MD
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KEY FACTS

  • Imaging

    • Top Differential Diagnoses

      • Clinical Issues

        TERMINOLOGY

        • Abbreviations

          • Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET)
        • Synonyms

          • Islet cell tumor
        • Definitions

          • Tumors arising from pancreatic endocrine cells (islets of Langerhans)
        • Associated Syndromes

          • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1, gastrinomas), von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, neurofibromatosis type I, tuberous sclerosis

        IMAGING

        • General Features

          • CT Findings

            • MR Findings

              • Ultrasonographic Findings

                • Angiographic Findings

                  • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                    • Imaging Recommendations

                      DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                        PATHOLOGY

                        • General Features

                          • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                            • Microscopic Features

                              CLINICAL ISSUES

                              • Presentation

                                • Demographics

                                  • Natural History & Prognosis

                                    • Treatment

                                      DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                      • Consider

                                        • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                          Selected References

                                          1. Kang BK et al: Diffusion-weighted MRI: usefulness for differentiating intrapancreatic accessory spleen and small hypervascular neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas. Acta Radiol. ePub, 2013
                                          2. Kawamoto S et al: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with cystlike changes: evaluation with MDCT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 200(3):W283-90, 2013
                                          3. Brenner R et al: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor: added value of fusion of T2-weighted imaging and high b-value diffusion-weighted imaging for tumor detection. Eur J Radiol. 81(5):e746-9, 2012
                                          4. Milan SA et al: Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas. Curr Opin Oncol. 24(1):46-55, 2012
                                          5. Raman SP et al: Pancreatic imaging mimics: part 2, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and their mimics. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 199(2):309-18, 2012
                                          6. Rufini V et al: Role of PET/CT in the functional imaging of endocrine pancreatic tumors. Abdom Imaging. 37(6):1004-20, 2012
                                          7. Singhi AD et al: Cystic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: a clinicopathologic study. Am J Surg Pathol. 36(11):1666-73, 2012
                                          8. Iyer R et al: The changing paradigm of treating pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 9(12):1331-3, 2011
                                          9. Kawamoto S et al: Small serotonin-producing neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas associated with pancreatic duct obstruction. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 197(3):W482-8, 2011
                                          10. Abood GJ et al: The surgical and systemic management of neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas. Surg Clin North Am. 89(1):249-66, x, 2009
                                          11. Davies K et al: Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 11(2):119-27, 2009
                                          12. Christante D et al: Hepatic artery chemoinfusion with chemoembolization for neuroendocrine cancer with progressive hepatic metastases despite octreotide therapy. Surgery. 144(6):885-93; discussion 893-4, 2008
                                          13. Herwick S et al: MRI of islet cell tumors of the pancreas. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 187(5):W472-80, 2006
                                          14. Horton KM et al: Multi-detector row CT of pancreatic islet cell tumors. Radiographics. 26(2):453-64, 2006
                                          15. Dromain C et al: MR imaging of hepatic metastases caused by neuroendocrine tumors: comparing four techniques. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 180(1):121-8, 2003
                                          16. Marcos HB et al: Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas in von Hippel-Lindau disease: spectrum of appearances at CT and MR imaging with histopathologic comparison. Radiology. 225(3):751-8, 2002
                                          17. Ichikawa T et al: Islet cell tumor of the pancreas: biphasic CT versus MR imaging in tumor detection. Radiology. 216(1):163-71, 2000
                                          18. Thoeni RF et al: Detection of small, functional islet cell tumors in the pancreas: selection of MR imaging sequences for optimal sensitivity. Radiology. 214(2):483-90, 2000
                                          Related Anatomy
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                                          Related Differential Diagnoses
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                                          References
                                          Tables

                                          Tables

                                          KEY FACTS

                                          • Imaging

                                            • Top Differential Diagnoses

                                              • Clinical Issues

                                                TERMINOLOGY

                                                • Abbreviations

                                                  • Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET)
                                                • Synonyms

                                                  • Islet cell tumor
                                                • Definitions

                                                  • Tumors arising from pancreatic endocrine cells (islets of Langerhans)
                                                • Associated Syndromes

                                                  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1, gastrinomas), von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, neurofibromatosis type I, tuberous sclerosis

                                                IMAGING

                                                • General Features

                                                  • CT Findings

                                                    • MR Findings

                                                      • Ultrasonographic Findings

                                                        • Angiographic Findings

                                                          • Nuclear Medicine Findings

                                                            • Imaging Recommendations

                                                              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

                                                                PATHOLOGY

                                                                • General Features

                                                                  • Gross Pathologic & Surgical Features

                                                                    • Microscopic Features

                                                                      CLINICAL ISSUES

                                                                      • Presentation

                                                                        • Demographics

                                                                          • Natural History & Prognosis

                                                                            • Treatment

                                                                              DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST

                                                                              • Consider

                                                                                • Image Interpretation Pearls

                                                                                  Selected References

                                                                                  1. Kang BK et al: Diffusion-weighted MRI: usefulness for differentiating intrapancreatic accessory spleen and small hypervascular neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas. Acta Radiol. ePub, 2013
                                                                                  2. Kawamoto S et al: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with cystlike changes: evaluation with MDCT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 200(3):W283-90, 2013
                                                                                  3. Brenner R et al: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor: added value of fusion of T2-weighted imaging and high b-value diffusion-weighted imaging for tumor detection. Eur J Radiol. 81(5):e746-9, 2012
                                                                                  4. Milan SA et al: Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas. Curr Opin Oncol. 24(1):46-55, 2012
                                                                                  5. Raman SP et al: Pancreatic imaging mimics: part 2, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and their mimics. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 199(2):309-18, 2012
                                                                                  6. Rufini V et al: Role of PET/CT in the functional imaging of endocrine pancreatic tumors. Abdom Imaging. 37(6):1004-20, 2012
                                                                                  7. Singhi AD et al: Cystic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: a clinicopathologic study. Am J Surg Pathol. 36(11):1666-73, 2012
                                                                                  8. Iyer R et al: The changing paradigm of treating pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 9(12):1331-3, 2011
                                                                                  9. Kawamoto S et al: Small serotonin-producing neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas associated with pancreatic duct obstruction. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 197(3):W482-8, 2011
                                                                                  10. Abood GJ et al: The surgical and systemic management of neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas. Surg Clin North Am. 89(1):249-66, x, 2009
                                                                                  11. Davies K et al: Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 11(2):119-27, 2009
                                                                                  12. Christante D et al: Hepatic artery chemoinfusion with chemoembolization for neuroendocrine cancer with progressive hepatic metastases despite octreotide therapy. Surgery. 144(6):885-93; discussion 893-4, 2008
                                                                                  13. Herwick S et al: MRI of islet cell tumors of the pancreas. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 187(5):W472-80, 2006
                                                                                  14. Horton KM et al: Multi-detector row CT of pancreatic islet cell tumors. Radiographics. 26(2):453-64, 2006
                                                                                  15. Dromain C et al: MR imaging of hepatic metastases caused by neuroendocrine tumors: comparing four techniques. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 180(1):121-8, 2003
                                                                                  16. Marcos HB et al: Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas in von Hippel-Lindau disease: spectrum of appearances at CT and MR imaging with histopathologic comparison. Radiology. 225(3):751-8, 2002
                                                                                  17. Ichikawa T et al: Islet cell tumor of the pancreas: biphasic CT versus MR imaging in tumor detection. Radiology. 216(1):163-71, 2000
                                                                                  18. Thoeni RF et al: Detection of small, functional islet cell tumors in the pancreas: selection of MR imaging sequences for optimal sensitivity. Radiology. 214(2):483-90, 2000